This is a thread where people can ask questions that they would ordinarily feel embarrassed for not knowing the answer to. The previous "stupid" questions thread went to over 800 comments in two and a half weeks, so I think it's time for a new one.

This is a thread where people can ask questions that they would ordinarily feel embarrassed for not knowing the answer to. The previous "stupid" questions thread went to over 800 comments in two and a half weeks, so I think it's time for a new one.

It depends on the test, that is to say that the information given is not enough to determine it. If different instances of the test are independent, then you update on the 7%. If they are partially or completely dependant on one another, it is a lot more complicated. (An analogy: If you roll a die, there is a 1/2 chance of getting an even number, and a 1/2 chance if getting an odd number. If you roll the die twice, there is a 1/2 * 1/2 =1/4 chance of the first roll being odd, and the second roll being even, because the rolls are independent. Between non-independent events, you cannot just multiply out the probabilities like that. The chance of getting both an odd number and an even number on one die roll is 0, despite the fact that on a surface level it seems the same as the previous example: Two tests, each with a 1/2 chance of passing.)

So again, it depends on the type of test. If, say, the test is that people with a certain gene have more of a chance for the cancer (the test can always find the gene, and tells you the gene with 100% accuracy, but while having the gene increases your risk, it isn't absolute, giving the numbers you gave), then it is obvious that the new test will give you no new information. You know the test will again say that you have the gene, and you stay at the 7% confidence level. On the other hand, if the test is, say, some sort of scan, that will look for precancerous tissue, and in each unit of time, it has a certain (fixed) chance of either finding precancerous tissue if it exists or of falsely finding precancerous tissue, then multiple instances of the test will be independent, and so you can "add the information together", first updating on one test, then on the other, so you will do the update from the new test from your 7% confidence level.

(Actually, in real life, it will be far more complicated than that, with different test being only partially independent. It is unrealistic to think the first test will correctly identify the gene 100% of the time, and in the second one, there is only a fixed number of places in the body to look, so the probability of finding a new precancerous growth will probably not stay fixed.)