Thanks for finding this!
There was one assumption in the StackExchange post I didn't immediately get, that the variance of is . But I just realized the proof for that is rather short: Assuming (the variance of ) is the identity then the left side is
and the right side is
so this works out. (The symbols are sums here.)
Thank for for the extensive comment! Your summary is really helpful to see how this came across, here's my take on a couple of these points:
2.b: The network would be sneaking information about the size of the residual stream past LayerNorm. So the network wants to implement an sort of "grow by a factor X every layer" and wants to prevent LayerNorm from resetting its progress.
If I'm interpreting this correctly, then it sounds like the network is learning exponentially larger weights in order to compensate for an exponentially growing residual stream. However, I'm still not quite clear on why LayerNorm doesn't take care of this.
I understand the network's "intention" the other way around, I think that the network wants to have an exponentially growing residual stream. And in order to get an exponentially growing residual stream the model increases its weights exponentially.
And our speculation for why the model would want this is our "favored explanation" mentioned above.
Thanks for the comment and linking that paper! I think this is about training dynamics though, norm growth as a function of checkpoint rather than layer index.
Generally I find basically no papers discussing the parameter or residual stream growth over layer number, all the similar-sounding papers seem to discuss parameter norms increasing as a function of epoch or checkpoint (training dynamics). I don't expect the scaling over epoch and layer number to be related?
Only this paper mentions layer number in this context, and the paper is about solving the vani...
Oh I hadn't thought of this, thanks for the comment! I don't think this apply to Pre-LN Transformers though?
In Pre-LN transformers every layer's output is directly connected to the residual stream (and thus just one unembedding away from logits), wouldn't this remove the vanishing gradient problem? I just checkout out the paper you linked, they claim exponentially vanishing gradients is a problem (only) in Post-LN, and how Pre-LN (and their new method) prevent the problem, right?
The residual stream norm curves seem to follow the exponential growth qu
Finally, we give a simple approach to verify that a particular token is unspeakable rather than just being hard-to-speak.
You're using an optimization procedure to find an embedding that produces an output, and if you cannot find one you say it is unspeakable. How confident are you that the optimization is strong enough? I.e. what are the odds that a god-mode optimizer in this high-dimensional space could actually find an embedding that produces the unspeakable token, it's just that linprog wasn't strong enough?
Just checking here, I can totally imagine that the optimizer is an unlikely point of failure. Nice work again!
Thanks Marius for this great write-up!
However, I was surprised to find that the datapoints the network misclassified on the training data are evenly distributed across the D* spectrum. I would have expected them to all have low D* didn’t learn them.
My first intuition here was that the misclassified data points where the network just tried to use the learned features and just got it wrong, rather than those being points the network didn't bother to learn? Like say a 2 that looks a lot like an 8 so to the network it looks like a middle-of-the-spectrum 8?...
I don't think I understand the problem correctly, but let me try to rephrase this. I believe the key part is the claim whether or not ChatGPT has a global plan? Let's say we run ChatGPT one output at a time, every time appending the output token to the current prompt and calculating the next output. This ignores some beam search shenanigans that may be useful in practice, but I don't think that's the core issue here.
There is no memory between calculating the first and second token. The first time you give ChatGPT the sequence "Once upon a" and it predicts ...
Yep, it seems to be a coincidence that only the 4-layer model learned this and the 3-layer one did not. As Neel said I would expect the 3-layer model to learn it if you give it more width / more heads.
We also later checked networks with MLPs, and turns out the 3-layer gelu models (same properties except for MLPs) can do the task just fine.
Your language model game(s) are really interesting -- I've had a couple ideas when "playing" (such as adding GPT2-small suggestions for the user to choose from, some tokenization improvements) -- are you happy to share the source / tools to build this website or is it not in a state you would be happy to share? Totally fine if not, just realized that I should ask before considering building something!
Edit for future readers: Managed to do this with Heroku & flask, then switched to Streamlit -- code here, mostly written by ChatGPT: https://huggingface.co/spaces/StefanHex/simple-trafo-mech-int/tree/main
I really appreciated all the observations here and enjoyed reading this post, thank you for writing all this up!
Edit: Found it here! https://github.com/socketteer/loom/ Your setup looks quite useful, with all the extra information -- is it available publicly somewhere / would you be happy to share it, or is the tooling not in that state yet? (Totally fine, just thought I'd ask!)
Firstly thank you for writing this post, trying to "poke holes" into the "AGI might doom us all" hypothesis. I like to see this!
How is the belief in doom harming this community?
Actually I see this point, "believing" in "doom" can often be harmful and is usually useless.
Yes, being aware of the (great) risk is helpful for cases like "someone at Google accidentally builds an AGI" (and then hopefully turns it off since they notice and are scared).
But believing we are doomed anyway is probably not helpful. I like to think along the lines of "condition on us...
Image interpretability seems mostly so easy because humans are already really good
Thank you, this is a good point! I wonder how much of this is humans "doing the hard work" of interpreting the features. It raises the question of whether we will be able to interpret more advanced networks, especially if they evolve features that don't overlap with the way humans process inputs.
The language model idea sounds cool! I don't know language models well enough yet but I might come back to this once I get to work on transformers.
I think I found the problem: Omega is unable to predict your action in this scenario, i.e. the assumption "Omega is good at predicting your behaviour" is wrong / impossible / inconsistent.
Consider a day where Omicron (randomly) chose a prime number (Omega knows this). Now an EDT is on their way to the room with the boxes, and Omega has to put a prime or non-prime (composite) number into the box, predicting EDT's action.
If Omega makes X prime (i.e. coincides) then EDT two-boxes and therefore Omega has failed in predicting.
If Omega makes X non-prime (i.e. nu...
This scenario seems impossible, as in contradictory / not self-consistent. I cannot say exactly why it breaks, but at least the two statements here seem to be not consistent:
today they [Omicron] happen to have selected the number X
and
[Omega puts] a prime number in that box iff they predicted you will take only the big box
Both of these statements have implications for X and cannot both be always true. The number cannot both, be random, and be chosen by Omega/you, can it?
From another angle, the statement
FDT will always see a prime number
demonstra...
Nice argument! My main caveats are
* Does training scale linearly? Does it take just twice as much time to get someone to 4 bits (top 3% in world, one in every school class) and from 4 to 8 bits (one in 1000)?
* Can we train everything? How much of e.g. math skills are genetic? I think there is research on this
* Skills are probably quite highly correlated, especially when it comes to skills you want in the same job. What about computer skills / programming and maths skills / science -- are they inherently correlated or is it just because the same people need both? [Edit: See point made by Gunnar_Zarncke above, better argument on this]
That is a very broad description - are you talking about locating Fast Radio Bursts? I would be very surprised if that was easily possible.
Background: Astronomy/Cosmology PhD student
Hi, and thanks for the comment!
Both of these show slightly different things. Imagine an "AND circuit" where the result is only correct if two attention heads are clean. If you patch clean->corrupt (inserting a clean attention head activation into a corrupt prompt) you will not find this; but you do if you patch corrupt->clean. However the opposite applies for a kind of "OR circuit". I historically had more success with corrupt->clean s... (read more)