If I was hungry, I'd be more likely to steal food. If I had pent up anger, I'd be more likely to lash out. If I was rewarded for outcompeting my peers, I'd be more likely to cut moral corners. These things are fairly evident, but how can we generalise them to a comprehensive theory of human cooperation?
I'm not asking about a formal, game-theoretic answer per se. Though we can (should) certainly apply those insights, I'm looking for something about actual humans with actual human motivations. Something one could use to inform their decisions on structuring incentive structures on a variety of scales. How can we even begin answering this question? What concepts, apart from the ones I've already mentioned, could be part of the answer?