Sequence by Scott Alexander on exactly what the title says. Imported from the wiki.
See also: Priming, The Science of Winning at Life, Alief, and Connotation.
Simultaneously Right and Wrong
The Mystery of the Haunted Rationalist
The Apologist and the Revolutionary
You May Already Be A Sinner
Talking Snakes: A Cautionary Tale
The Skeptic's Trilemma
Are You a Solar Deity?
The "Spot the Fakes" Test
How to Not Lose an Argument
The Power of Positivist Thinking
When Truth Isn't Enough