A college student studying computer science, who likes thinking about history, philosophy, art, and why any of it matters.
Take time before you speak. If you're being asked about something, don't be afraid to say, "Let me think about that," or "That's a good question." These are essentially filler sentences of their own, but they are well articulated and they buy you time to think out what you're going to say next -- if you plan out what you're going to say, you won't need any filler words.
As for asking someone to transfer knowledge, phrasing is usually the key. Saying something like, "I'm trying to learn more about X. Can you give me an overview?" or, "I know you're more familiar with X than I am. Could you explain to me a little about how it works?"