On the subject of Star Trek, the Klingon culture in ST:TNG is supposedly inspired by (Western stereotypes of) feudal Japan.
The original Klingons were obviously supposed to be Russians, in ST:TNG and later they seemed to be some kind of absurd combination of Vikings and Samurai (both small warrior minorities in much larger cultures). Though I'd say Star Trek went to that well so many times that they dried up the water table.
Romulans: Imperial Japan
Cardassians: Fascist Japan
Talaxians: Occupied Japan
Even the institutional culture of Starfleet could be considered something of a riff on Corporate Japan.