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What should I teach to my future daughter?
Answer by jbashJun 19, 202012

I suggest that you relax a bit. She's not going to be learning programming or anything like it for years, regardless. Newborns spend months to years just learning how to use their own limbs and process the information from their own senses.

And I've never heard any evidence at all that, say, programming, is particularly important to learn all that early in life. Manual/mental skills like musical performance seem to turn out best if started early (but not necessarily as a toddler!). Languages, too. I could even imagine that critical logical thinking would benefit from early exposure. But programming? That's something you can figure out.

In the long run, meta-skills are important... things that let you decide for yourself which skills to learn and learn them on your own. And things that let you evaluate both the truth and the usefulness of all the stuff that everybody else is trying to teach you. Beyond that, the more flexible and generalizable the better.

But the biggest thing is this: she's going to be her own person. By the time she's old enough to be taught the kinds of hands-on skills you're talking about, she's going to have her own ideas about what she wants to learn. "This civilization" isn't some kind of apocalyptic dystopia, and you don't know "what is coming". In all probability, it will all add up to normality. In all probability, she will muddle through. ... and in all probability, neither you nor anybody here can guess what very specific skills she's going to need. Assuming, that is, that human skills are even relevant at all when she grows up.

Please don't drive her insane by pushing "needed practical skills". Let her enjoy life, and let her learn by doing things that engage her. While you're unlikely to make a monster impact by predicting what she'll need in the future, you will definitely have an impact on her present, and maybe on how she sees learning in general..

On “COVID-19 Superspreader Events in 28 Countries: Critical Patterns and Lessons”

Um, direction of airflow, by definition, doesn't affect the ballistic transmission of anything. On the other hand, the longer something hangs in the air, the more it's affected by the direction of airflow, and that applies all the way down to gas molecules.

Singing or breathing hard seems likely to increase droplets of all sizes right down to submicron.

How credible is the theory that COVID19 escaped from a Wuhan Lab?

Because it is likely to:

  1. Damage international relations and cooperation in the middle of a pandemic. You have US Senators out there pushing this thing. That's going to offend the Chinese government. At the absolute least, it will distract people from cooperating.
  2. Cause another wave of anti-Asian, and specifically anti-Chinese, racist attacks. Such attacks happened even when everybody thought the whole thing was an accident. If you make them believe it was deliberate (on edit: they will believe this even if the rumor is that it was an accident, and there's still a big problem if they only believe it was careless), they will definitely do it more.

In short, providing oxygen to rumors like this makes them more credible and more available to idiots. Idiots are predictable elements of the world, and you can reasonably anticipate their responses to the conditions you create.

Bogus Exam Questions

Erm, the students are not expected to understand the math, and are not being tested on their understanding of the math. The professor doesn't understand the math either. I mean that there is epsilon chance that any given psychology professor, especially an educational psychology professor, has ever heard the phrase "sigma algebra". If they have, it's because they're math hobbyists, not because it's ever come up in their professional work.

In a psychology course, "runs a multiple regression" means "follows a specific procedure analogous to a computer program". The whole thing is a black box. The decision about when it's valid to use that procedure is made based on various rules of thumb, which are passed around mostly as folklore, and are themselves understood and followed with varying degrees of conscienciousness. The same applies to the question of what the results mean.

It's absolutely a valid criticism that people in fields like psychology tend to misapply statistical methods and misunderstand statistical results. They do need an intuitive understanding of what they're doing, good enough to know when they can apply the method and what the results actually show. And it's true that most of them probably don't have that understanding.

On the other hand, it's also true that you don't need to understand the math at a very deep level to use the techniques practically. They don't need to be able to derive the method from first principals, nor to be able to rigorously prove that everything works, nor to recognize pathological corner cases that will literally never be encountered in real applications. Those are unreasonable things to ask. Remember that their goal is to understand psychology, not to understand mathematics.

Students in all kinds of science and engineering are allowed to use instruments that they couldn't build themselves, and practitioners still more so. They're not expected to understand every possible corner-case limitation of those instruments, either. At most they're given some rules for when they can or can't use and rely on an instrument.

It's still a really lame question, though, and the fact that it's asked does show a problem. Nobody seems to be looking for even an intuitive grasp of all the stuff that's lurking in that word "expect".

[HPMOR] Harry - example or anti-example?

Chapter 122, paragraph beginning with "And right now, Harry James Potter-Evans-Verres was still a walking catastrophe"... and the stuff immediately preceding and following it. Seems like a pretty direct answer to your question.

[Review] On the Chatham House Rule (Ben Pace, Dec 2019)

I don't think Apple is a useful model here at all.

I'm pretty sure secrecy has been key for Apple's ability to control its brand,

Well, Apple thinks so anyway. They may or may not be right, and "control of the brand" may or may not be important anyway. But anyway it's true that Apple can keep secrets to some degree.

and it's not just slowed itself down,

Apple is a unitary organization, though. It has a boundary. It's small enough that you can find the person whose job it is to care about any given issue, and you are unlikely to miss anybody who needs to know. It has well-defined procedures and effective enforcement. Its secrets have a relatively short lifetime of maybe as much as 2 or 3 years.

Anybody who is spying on Apple is likely to be either a lot smaller, or heavily constrained in how they can safely use any secret they get. If I'm at Google and I steal something from Apple, I can't publicize it internally, and in fact I run a very large risk of getting fired or turned in to law enforcement if I tell it to the wrong person internally.

Apple has no adversary with a disproportionate internal communication advantage, at least not with respect to any secrets that come from Apple.

The color of the next iPhone is never going to be as interesting to any adversary as an X-risk-level AI secret. And if, say, MIRI actually has a secret that is X-risk-level, then anybody who steals it, and who's in a position to actually use it, is not likely to feel the least bit constrained by fear of MIRI's retaliation in using it to do whatever X-risky thing they may be doing.

[Review] On the Chatham House Rule (Ben Pace, Dec 2019)

MIRI's written about going non-disclosed by default. I expect you to think this is fine and probably good and not too relevant, because it's not (as far as the writeup suggests) an attempt to keep secrets from the US government, and you expect they'd fail at that. Is that right?

No, I think it's probably very counterproductive, depending on what it really means in practice. I wasn't quite sure what the balance was between "We are going to actively try to keep this secret" and "It's taking too much of our time to write all of this up".

On the secrecy side of that, the problem isn't whether or not MIRI's secrecy works (although it probably won't)[1]. The problem is with the cost and impact on their own community from their trying to do it. I'm going to go into that further down this tome.

And OpenAI is attempting to push more careful release practises into the overton window of discussion in the ML communities (my summary is here). [...] For example, there are lots of great researchers in the world that aren't paid by governments, and those people cannot get the ideas [...]

That whole GPT thing was just strange.

OpenAI didn't conceal any of the ideas at all. They held back the full version of the actual trained network, but as I recall they published all of the methods they used to create it. Although a big data blob like the network is relatively easy to keep secret, if your goal is to slow down other research, controlling the network isn't going to be effective at all.

... and I don't think that slowing down follow-on research was their goal. If I remember right, they seemed to be worried that people would abuse the actual network they'd trained. That was indeed unrealistic. I've seen the text from the full network, and played with giving it prompts and seeing what comes out. Frankly, the thing is useless for fooling anybody and wouldn't be worth anybody's time. You could do better by driving a manually created grammar with random numbers, and people already do that.

Treating it like a Big Deal just made OpenAI look grossly out of touch. I wonder how long it took them to get the cherry-picked examples they published when they made their announcement...

So, yes, I thought OpenAI was being unrealistic, although it's not the kind of "romanticization" I had in mind. I just can't figure out what they could have stood to gain by that particular move.

All that said, I don't think I object to "more careful release practices", in the sense of giving a little thought to what you hand out. My objections are more to things like--

  1. Secrecy-by-default, or treating it as cost-free to make something secret. It's impractical to have too many secrets, and tends to dilute your protection for any secrets you actually do truly need. In the specific case of AI risk, I think it also changes the balance of speed between you and your adversaries... for the worse. I'll explain more about that below when I talk about MIRI.

  2. The idea that you can just "not release things", without very strict formal controls and institutional boundaries, and have that actually work in any meaningful way. There seems to be a lot of "illusion of control" thinking going on. Real secrecy is hard, and it gets harder fast if it has to last a long time.

To set the frame for the rest, I'm going to bloviate a bit about how I've seen secrecy to work in general.

One of the "secrets of secrecy" is that, at any scale beyond two or three people, it's more about controlling diffusion rates than about creating absolute barriers. Information interesting enough to care about will leak eventually.

You have some amount of control over the diffusion rate within some specific domains, and at their boundaries. Once information breaks out into a domain you do not control, it will spread according to the conditions in that new domain regardless of what you do. When information hits a new community, there's a step change in how fast it propagates.

Which brings up next not-very-secret secret: I'm wrong to talk about a "diffusion rate". The numbers aren't big enough to smooth out random fluctuations the way they are for molecules. Information tends to move in jumps for lots of reasons. Something may stay "secret" for a really long time just because nobody notices it... and then become big news when it gets to somebody who actively propagates it, or to somebody who sees an implication others didn't. A big part of propagation is the framing and setting; if you pair some information with an explanation of why it matters, and release it into a community with a lot of members who care, it will move much, much faster than if you don't.[2]

So, now, MIRI's approach...

The problem with what MIRI seems to be doing is that it disproportionately slows the movement of information within their own community and among their allies. In most cases, they will probably hurt themselves more than they hurt their "adversaries".

Ideas will still spread among the "good guys", but unreliably, slowly, through an unpredictable rumor mill, with much negotiation and everybody worrying at every turn about what to tell everybody else [3]. That keeps problems from getting solved. It can't be fixed by telling the people who "need to know", because MIRI (or whoever) won't know who those people are, especially-but-not-only if they're also being secretive.

Meanwhile, MIRI can't rely on keeping absolute secrets from anybody for any meaningful amount of time. And they'll probably have a relatively small effect on institutions that could actually do dangerous development. Assuming it's actually interesting, once one of MIRI's secrets gets to somebody who happens to be part of some "adversary" institution, it will be propagated throughout that institution, possibly very quickly. It may even get formally announced in the internal newsletter. It even has a chance of moving on from there into that first institution's own institutional adversaries, because they spy on each other.

But the "adversaries" are still relatively good at secrecy, especially from non-peers, so any follow-on ideas they produce will be slower to propagate back out into the public where MIRI et al can benefit from them.

The advantage the AI risk and X-risk communities have is, if you will, flexibility: they can get their heads around new ideas relatively quickly, adapt, act on implications, build one idea on another, and change their course relatively rapidly. The corresponding, closely related disadvantage is weakness in coordinating work on a large scale toward specific, agreed-upon goals (like say big scary AI development projects).

Worrying too much about secrecy throws away the advantage, but doesn't cure the disadvantage. Curing the disadvantage requires a culture and a set of material resources that I don't believe MIRI and friends can ever develop... and that would probably torpedo their effectiveness if they did develop them.

By their nature, they are going to be the people who are arguing against some development program that everybody else is for. Maybe against programs that have already got a lot of investment behind them before some problem becomes clear. That makes them intrinsically less acceptable as "team players". And they can't easily focus on doing a single project; they have to worry about any possible way of doing it wrong. The structures that are good at building dangerous projects aren't necessarily the same as the structures that are good at stoppping them.

If the AI safety community loses its agility advantage, it's not gonna have much left.

MIRI will probably also lose some donors and collaborators, and have more trouble recruiting new ones as time goes on. People will forget they exist because they're not talking, and there's a certain reluctance to give people money or attention in exchange for "pigs in pokes"... or even to spend the effort to engage and find out what's in the poke.

A couple of other notes:

Sometimes people talk about spreading defensive ideas without spreading the corresponding offensive ideas. In AI, that comes out as wanting to talk about safety measures without saying anything about how to increase capability.

In computer security, it comes out as cryptic announcments to "protect this port from this type of traffic until you apply this patch"... and it almost never works for long. The mere fact that you're talking about some specific subject is enough to get people interested and make them figure out the offensive side. It can work for a couple of weeks for a security bug announcement, but beyond that it will almost always just backfire by drawing attention. And it's very rare to be able to improve a defense without understanding the actual threat.

Edited the next day in an attempt to fix the footnotes... paragraphs after the first in each footnote were being left in the main flow.

  1. As for keeping secrets from any major government...
    First, I still prefer to talk about the Chinese government. The US government seems less likely to be a player here. Probably the most important reason is that most parts of the US government apparatus see things like AI development as a job for "industry", which they tend to believe should be a very clearly separate sphere from "government". That's kind of different from the Chinese attitude, and it matters. Another reason is that the US government tends to have certain legal constraints and certain scruples that limit their effectiveness in penetrating secrecy.
    I threw the US in as a reminder that China is far from the only issue, and I chose them because they used to be more interesting back during the cold war, and perhaps could be again if they got worried enough about "national security".
    But if any government, including the US, decides that MIRI has a lot of important "national security" information, and decides to look hard at them, then, yes, MIRI will largely fail to keep secrets. They may not fail completely. They may be able to keep some things off the radar, for a while. But that's less likely for the most important things, and it will get harder the more people they convince that they may have information that's worth looking at. Which they need to do.
    They'll probably even have information leaking into institutions that aren't actively spying on them, and aren't governments, either.
    But that all that just leaves them where they started anyway. If there were no cost to it, it wouldn't be a problem. ↩︎

  2. You can also get independent discoveries creating new, unpredictable starting points for diffusion. Often independent discoveries get easier as time goes on and the general "background" information improves. If you thought of something, even something really new, that can be a signal that conditions are making it easier for the next person to think of the same thing. I've seen security bugs with many independent discoveries.
    Not to mention pathologies like one community thinking something is a big secret, and then seeing it break out from some other, sometimes much larger community that has treated it as common knowledge for ages. ↩︎

  3. If you ever get to the point where mostly-unaffiliated individuals are having to make complicated decisions about what should be shared, or having to think hard about what they have and have not committed themselves not to share, you are 95 percent of the way to fully hosed.
    That sort of thing kind of works for industrial NDAs, but the reason it works is that, regardless of what people have convinced themselves to believe, most industrial "secret sauce" is pretty boring, and the rest tends to be either so specific and detailed that it obviously covered by any NDA. AND you usually only care about relatively few competitors, most of whose employees don't get paid enough to get sued. That's very different from some really inobvious world-shaking insight that makes the difference between low-power "safe" AI and high-power "unsafe" AI. ↩︎

[Review] On the Chatham House Rule (Ben Pace, Dec 2019)

I guess this is sort of an agreement with the post... but I don't think the post goes far enough.

Whoever "you guys" are, all you'll do by adopting a lot of secrecy is slow yourselves down radically, while making sure that people who are better than you are at secrecy, who are better than you are at penetrating secrecy, who have more resources than you do, and who are better at coordinated action than you are, will know nearly everything you do, and will also know many things that you don't know.

They will "scoop" you at every important point. And you have approximately zero chance of ever catching up with them on any of their advantages.

The best case long term outcome of an emphasis on keeping dangerous ideas secret would be that particular elements within the Chinese government (or maybe the US government, not that the corresponding elements would necessarily be much better) would get it right when they consolidated their current worldview's permanent, unchallengeable control over all human affairs. That control could very well include making it impossible for anyone to even want to change the values being enforced. The sorts of people most likely to be ahead throughout any race, and most likely to win if there's a hard "end", would be completely comfortable with re-educating you to cure your disharmonious counter-revolutionary attitudes. If they couldn't do that, they'd definitely arrange things so that you couldn't ever communicate those attitudes or coordinate around them.

The worst case outcome is that somebody outright destroys the world in a way you might have been able to talk them out of.

Secrecy destroys your influence over people who might otherwise take warnings from you. Nobody is going to change any actions without a clear and detailed explanation of the reasons. And you can't necessarily know who needs to be given such an explanation. In fact, people you might consider members of "your community" could end up making nasty mistakes because they don't know something you do.

I've spent a lot of my career on the sorts of things where people try to keep secrets, and my overall impression of the AI risk and X-risk communities (including Nick Bostrom) is that they have a profoundly unrealistic, sometimes outright romanticized, view of what secrecy is and what it can do for them (and an unduly rosy view of their prospects for unanimous action in general).

Who owns OpenAI's new language model?

The US has criminal copyright law. I thought it was recent, but Wikipedia says it's actually been around since 1897.

The probability of the governemnt trying to USE it in this kind of case is epsilon over ten, though. And as you say, they'd probably lose if they did, because the neural network isn't really derivative of the Web pages, and even if it is it's probably fair use.

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