Summary: Aristotelianism considered harmful; Hilbert Space is the new industry standard.
Eliezer proposed the idea that "if you looked at the history of England, you would find a smooth improvement in living conditions corresponding to a gradually more plausible threat of revolution".
According to Eric Hoffer, the above is true. However, the direction of causation is the reverse of what one would expect. Improved living conditions precede revolutionary sentiment.
A conscious mind on a protein-based computer? You expect me to believe in sentient MEAT!?
As an interesting aside, I believe calorie-counting isn't done in the stomach. However, protein content is measured directly at the taste buds. Which explains why MSG tastes so good, and makes a light meal seem more filling. At least until digestion has started and the expected barrage of amino acids is somehwat lacking.
Addendum: In computational terms, you can't avoid using a 'hack'. Maybe not the hack you described, but something, somewhere has to be hard-coded. How else would you avoid solipsism?
I have to go with Tom McGabe on this one; This is just a restatement of the core problem of epistemology. It's not unique to AI, either.