Would you consider MuZero an advance in causal reasoning? Despite intentionally not representing causality / explicit model dynamics, it supports hypothetical reasoning via state tree search.
Do you think there's a chance of MuZero - AlphaStar crossover?
The general tool: residual networks variant of convolutional NNs, MCTS-like variable-depth tree search. Prerequisites: input can be presented as K layers of N-D data (where N=1,2,3... not too large), the action space is discrete. If the actions are not discrete, an additional small module would be needed to quantize the action space based on the neural network's action priors.
Perhaps a satisfactory answer can be found in "Jewish Philosophy as a Guide to Life: Rosenzweig, Buber, Levinas, Wittgenstein" by Hilary Putnam (who seemed to me to be a reasonable philosopher, but converted to Judaism). I've just started listening to its audiobook version, prompted by this post.
At high-school level, physics has perhaps the richest tightly-knit concept structures.
Including signaling "thanks" to the university. :-)
Reminds me of the error -- on charitable reading, of the characters, but perhaps of the author -- in "Permutation City". There's no such a thing as out-of-order simulation.
Only in objective modal sense. Beliefs are probabilistic constraints over observations anticipated given a context. So in the example with stars moving away, the stars are still observables because there is counterfactual context where we observe them from nearby (by traveling with them etc.)
(1) It's totally tongue-in-cheek. (2) By "modern" I don't mean "contemporary", I mean "since Descartes onwards". (3) By "notes" I mean criticisms. (4) The point is that I see responses to the simulation aka. Daemon argument recurring in philosophy.
Modern philosophy is just a set of notes on the margins of Descartes' "Meditations".
All our values are fallible, but doubt requires justification.