Research scientist at DeepMind working on AI safety, and cofounder of the Future of Life Institute. Website and blog:


"Do Nothing" utility function, 3½ years later?
Answer by VikaJul 20, 20206

Hi there! If you'd like to get up to speed on impact measures, I would recommend these papers and the Reframing Impact sequence.

Tradeoff between desirable properties for baseline choices in impact measures

It was not my intention to imply that semantic structure is never needed - I was just saying that the pedestrian example does not indicate the need for semantic structure. I would generally like to minimize the use of semantic structure in impact measures, but I agree it's unlikely we can get away without it. 

There are some kinds of semantic structure that the agent can learn without explicit human input, e.g. by observing how humans have arranged the world (as in the RLSP paper). I think it's plausible that agents can learn the semantic structure that's needed for impact measures through unsupervised learning about the world, without relying on human input. This information could be incorporated in the weights assigned to reaching different states or satisfying different utility functions by the deviation measure (e.g. states where pigeons / cats are alive). 

Tradeoff between desirable properties for baseline choices in impact measures

Looks great, thanks! Minor point: in the sparse reward case, rather than "setting the baseline to the last state in which a reward was achieved", we set the initial state of the inaction baseline to be this last rewarded state, and then apply noops from this initial state to obtain the baseline state (otherwise this would be a starting state baseline rather than an inaction baseline). 

Tradeoff between desirable properties for baseline choices in impact measures

I would say that impact measures don't consider these kinds of judgments. The "doing nothing" baseline can be seen as analogous to the agent never being deployed, e.g. in the Low Impact AI paper. If the agent is never deployed, and someone dies in the meantime, then it's not the agent's responsibility and is not part of the agent's impact on the world.

I think the intuition you are describing partly arises from the choice of language: "killing someone by not doing something" vs "someone dying while you are doing nothing". The word "killing" is an active verb that carries a connotation of responsibility. If you taboo this word, does your question persist?

Tradeoff between desirable properties for baseline choices in impact measures

Thanks Flo for pointing this out. I agree with your reasoning for why we want the Markov property. For the second modification, we can sample a rollout from the agent policy rather than computing a penalty over all possible rollouts. For example, we could randomly choose an integer N, roll out the agent policy and the inaction policy for N steps, and then compare the resulting states. This does require a complete environment model (which does make it more complicated to apply standard RL), while inaction rollouts only require a partial environment model (predicting the outcome of the noop action in each state). If you don't have a complete environment model, then you can still use the first modification (sampling a baseline state from the inaction rollout). 

Tradeoff between desirable properties for baseline choices in impact measures

I don't think the pedestrian example shows a need for semantic structure. The example is intended to illustrate that an agent with the stepwise inaction baseline has no incentive to undo the delayed effect that it has set up. We want the baseline to incentivize the agent to undo any delayed effect, whether it involves hitting a pedestrian or making a pigeon fly. 

The pedestrian and pigeon effects differ in the magnitude of impact, so it is the job of the deviation measure to distinguish between them and penalize the pedestrian effect more. Optionality-based deviation measures (AU and RR) capture this distinction because hitting the pedestrian eliminates more options than making the pigeon fly.

Tradeoff between desirable properties for baseline choices in impact measures

The baseline is not intended to indicate what should happen, but rather what happens by default. The role of the baseline is to filter out effects that were not caused by the agent, to avoid penalizing the agent for them (which would produce interference incentives). Explicitly specifying what should happen usually requires environment-specific human input, and impact measures generally try to avoid this.

[Site Meta] Feature Update: More Tags! (Experimental)

I was thinking of an AI specific tag, it seems a bit too broad otherwise.

[Site Meta] Feature Update: More Tags! (Experimental)

+1 for a Mechanism Design/Aligning Incentives tag. I think "incentive design" would be a good name for this category. This would encompass material on specification gaming, tampering, impact measures, etc. Including specific examples of misaligned incentives under this umbrella seems fine as well.

Specification gaming: the flip side of AI ingenuity

Thanks Koen for your feedback! You make a great point about a clearer call to action for RL researchers. I think an immediate call to action is to be aware of the following:

  • there is a broader scope of aligned RL agent design
  • there are difficult unsolved problems in this broader scope
  • for sufficiently advanced agents, these problems need general solutions rather than ad-hoc ones

Then a long-term call to action (if/when they are in the position to deploy an advanced AI system) is to consider the broader scope and look for general solutions to specification problems rather than deploying ad-hoc solutions. For those general solutions, they could refer to the safety literature and/or consult the safety community.

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