When you're thinking about writing a patent, you want to consider two key things (aside from obvious stuff like it being novel and nonobvious):
First, it needs to be something that's not easy to work around. If you patent some particular form of learning, say, it needs to be one where there aren't tweaks that others could make that would route around the patent.
Second, it needs to cover things that are detectable in order to matter. If you patent some form of learning, but then open AI uses it but doesn't disclose what they're doing, it becomes essentially useless.
That second factor makes this pretty hard to use, I think. Most of the stuff you would want to protect from a safety standpoint is the kind of thing that is hard to identify in use, as opposed to applications which are more observable.
Source: work on AI, talk to patent lawyers sometimes, have a few software patents.