Regarding time inconsistency of rewards, where subjects displayed a "today-bias", might this be explained by shards formed in relation to "payout-day" (getting pocket money or salary)? For many people, agency and well-being vary over the month, peaking on the day of their monthly payout. It makes sense to me that these variations create a shard that values getting paid TODAY rather than tomorrow.
For the 365 vs 366 example, I would assume that the selection is handled more rationally, optimizing for the expected return.
Tasker is great in general, I've integrated it with my todo list using todoists REST API, which works great.
As for sourcing triggers:
The only general way I can think of is a personal assistant (or some kind of service that provides the same kind of human assistance).
Otherwise maybe figure out a couple of domain-specific trigger-sourcing methods.
If this allows you to do websites, you've covered most online things.
For covering non-online things, maybe you can find an API, use some kind of oracle service or similar.
Do you have an example for thing you struggle with?
I haven't tried it myself, but would something like this do the trick?
Does anyone know about an addon to filter facebook notifications? I want to know about comments, but not reactions/likes