The paper sets up some intuitive minimal axioms for quantifying power sets and then (seems to) use them to derive Bayesian probability theory, information gain, and Shannon Entropy. The paper also claims to use less assumptions than both Cox and Kolmogorov when choosing axioms. This seems like a significant foundation/unification. I'd like to hear whether others agree and what parts of the paper you think are the significant contributions.
If a 14 page paper is too long for you, I recommend skipping to the conclusion (starting at the bottom of page 12) where there is a nice picture representation of the axioms and a quick summary of what they imply.