I am very much interested in examples of non-human optimization processes producing working, but surprising solutions. What is most fascinating is how they show human approach is often not the only one and much more alien solutions can be found, which humans are just not capable of conceiving. It is very probable, that more and more such solutions will arise and will slowly make big part of technology ununderstandable by humans.
I present following examples and ask for linking more in comments:
1. Nick Bostrom describes efforts in evolving circuits that would produce oscilloscope and frequency discriminator, that yielded very unorthodox designs:
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/r.stow1/jb/publications/Bird_CEC2002.pdf (IV. B. Oscillator Experiments; also C. and D. in that section)
2. Algorithms learns to play NES games with some eerie strategies:
https://youtu.be/qXXZLoq2zFc?t=361 (description by Vsause)
http://hackaday.com/2013/04/14/teaching-a-computer-to-play-mario-seemingly-through-voodoo/ (more info)
3. Eurisko finding unexpected way of winning Traveller TCS stratedy game: