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Rob Bensinger wrote a pretty good summary of consciousness for the LW wiki/tag page. The short version is: When the quarks are arranged in a way that implements an algorithm, and that algorithm has certain properties (though the exact details of those properties are somewhat difficult to pin down, since we don't understand intelligence all that well yet).

The short version is: When the quarks are arranged in a way that implements an algorithm, and that algorithm has certain properties (though the exact details of those properties are somewhat difficult to pin down, since we don’t understand intelligence all that well yet).

No, Bensiger doesn't suggest anything as the one correct theory of consciousness in that article.Elsewhere, he backs illusionism, not the algorthmic theory you are ascribing to him.

 I imagine there would be some sort of thermal limit, as above and below certain temperatures the matter required to host the consciousness could not survive. So far we don't have any proof of consciousness existing in matter other than carbon based life forms, and I think - at least for the time being - it's fair to exclude all quantum particles outside of the earths atmosphere from being considered sentient. Obviously the astronauts on the ISS would count as sentient as well, but the think a good line for starters to draw is the boundaries of the Earth's gravity. Quantum entanglement might also increase the amount of consciousness in the universe though. 

I'm sure it's not the line you were expecting to be drawn, but I think it bears stating as a way to reduce the amount of the universe which needs to be considered when looking for an answer to your question. With relationship to the idea of energy at the quantum level and a range of temperatures at which 'consciousness' exists, contemporary processors run at a relatively high temperature, and-  for the time being - quantum computers run at an extremely low temperature. 

If, at the human level of perception, it is true that Consciousness requires t... (read more)

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You need electrons too (so you can have atoms, and not just atomic nuclei). 

Yes you are right. Should've mentioned them since leptons are another family altogether

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