# Sequences

Entropy from first principles

# Wiki Contributions

Feedback on the website: it's not clear to me what the difference is between LessOnline and the summer camp right after. Is the summer camp only something you go to if you're also going to Manifest? Is it the same as LessOnline but longer?

Oh, no, I'm saying it's more like 2^8 afterwards. (Obviously it's more than that but I think closer to 8 than a million.) I think having functioning vision at all brings it down to, I dunno, 2^10000. I think you would be hard pressed to name 500 attributes of mammals that you need to pay attention to to learn a new species.

We then get around the 2^8000000 problem by having only a relatively very very small set of candidate “things” to which words might be attached.

A major way that we get around this is by having hierarchical abstractions. By the time I'm learning "dog" from 1-5 examples, I've already done enormous work in learning about objects, animals, something-like-mammals, heads, eyes, legs, etc. So when you point at five dogs and say "those form a group" I've already forged abstractions that handle almost all the information that makes them worth paying attention to, and now I'm just paying attention to a few differences from other mammals, like size, fur color, ear shape, etc.

I'm not sure how the rest of this post relates to this, but it didn't feel present; maybe it's one of the umpteenth things you left out for the sake of introductory exposition.

I've noticed you using the word "chaos" a few times across your posts. I think you're using it colloquially to mean something like "rapidly unpredictable", but it does have a technical meaning that doesn't always line up with how you use it, so it might be useful to distinguish it from a couple other things. Here's my current understanding of what some things mean. (All of these definitions and implications depend on a pile of finicky math and tend to have surprising counter-example if you didn't define things just right, and definitions vary across sources.)

Sensitive to initial conditions. A system is sensitive to initial conditions if two points in its phase space will eventually diverge exponentially (at least) over time. This is one way to say that you'll rapidly lose information about a system, but it doesn't have to look chaotic. For example, say you have a system whose phase space is just the real line, and its dynamics over time is just that points get 10x farther from the origin every time step. Then, if you know the value of a point to ten decimal places of precision, after ten time steps you only know one decimal place of precision. (Although there are regions of the real line where you're still sure it doesn't reside, for example you're sure it's not closer to the origin.)

Ergodic. A system is ergodic if (almost) every point in phase space will trace out a trajectory that gets arbitrarily close to every other point. This means that each point is some kind of chaotically unpredictable, because if it's been going for a while and you're not tracking it, you'll eventually end up with maximum uncertainty about where it is. But this doesn't imply sensitivity to initial conditions; there are systems that are ergodic, but where any pair of points will stay the same distance from each other. A simple example is where phase space is a circle, and the dynamics are that on each time step, you rotate each point around the circle by an irrational angle.

Chaos. The formal characterization that people assign to this word was an active research topic for decades, but I think it's mostly settled now. My understanding is that it essentially means this;

1. Your system has at least one point whose trajectory is ergodic, that is, it will get arbitrarily close to every other point in the phase space
2. For every natural number n, there is a point in the phase space whose trajectory is periodic with period n. That is, after n time steps (and not before), it will return back exactly where it started. (Further, these periodic points are "dense", that is, every point in phase space has periodic points arbitrarily close to it).

The reason these two criteria yield (colloquially) chaotic behavior is, I think, reasonably intuitively understandable. Take a random point in its phase space. Assume it isn't one with a periodic trajectory (which will be true with "probability 1"). Instead it will be ergodic. That means it will eventually get arbitrarily close to all other points. But consider what happens when it gets close to one of the periodic trajectories; it will, at least for a while, act almost as though it has that period, until it drifts sufficiently far away. (This is using an unstated assumption that the dynamics of the systems have a property where nearby points act similarly.) But it will eventually do this for every periodic trajectory. Therefore, there will be times when it's periodic very briefly, and times when it's periodic for a long time, et cetera. This makes it pretty unpredictable.

There are also connections between the above. You might have noticed that my example of a system that was sensitive to initial conditions but not ergodic or chaotic relied on having an unbounded phase space, where the two points both shot off to infinity. I think that if you have sensitivity to initial conditions and a bounded phase space, then you generally also have ergodic and chaotic behavior.

Anyway, I think "chaos" is a sexy/popular term to use to describe vaguely unpredictable systems, but almost all of the time you don't actually need to rely on the full technical criteria of it. I think this could be important for not leading readers into red-herring trails of investigation. For example, all of standard statistical mechanics only needs ergodicity.

Has anyone checked out Nassim Nicholas Taleb's book Statistical Consequences of Fat Tails? I'm wondering where it lies on the spectrum from textbook to prolonged opinion piece. I'd love to read a textbook about the title.

Just noticing that every post has at least one negative vote, which feels interesting for some reason.

The e-ink tablet market has really diversified recently. I'd recommend that anyone interested look around at the options. My impression is that the Kindle Scribe is one of the least good ones (which doesn't mean it's bad).

Here's the arxiv version of the paper, with a bunch more content in appendices.

And, since I can't do everything: what popular platforms shouldn't I prioritize?

I think cross-posting between twitter, mastodon and bluesky would be pretty easy. And it would let you gather your own data on which platforms are worth continuing.

I looked at these several months ago and unfortunately recommend neither. Pearl's Causality is very dense, and not really a good introduction. The Primer is really egregiously riddled with errors; there seems to have been some problem with the publisher. And on top of that, I just found it not very well written.

I don't have a specific recommendation, but I believe that at this point there are a bunch of statistics textbooks that competently discuss the essential content of causal modelling; maybe check the reviews for some of those on amazon.