Leigh Blyth BVM&S. Here to share my Base-Line Theory of Human Health and Movement - the key to better health. Grounded in some basic anatomy, the the 5 main muscles for a full range of natural movement, body alignment and balance. Hoping for some thoughts and feedback.


base-line to enlightenment - the physical route to better


Why anything that can be for-profit, should be

I was specifically asking about a vaccine for coronavirus. (I should have said covid19)

The potential profits from such a vaccine could be massive.

Weigh that against the effects of giving the world's population some sort of immunity.

If this vaccine is shown to be effective, the first round of vaccinations will be available at cost from Oxford University and AstraZeneca.:

Landmark partnership announced for development of COVID-19 vaccine

The partnership is to begin immediately with the final terms being agreed in the coming weeks.  This will allow for rapid vaccination around the world if the COVID-19 vaccine candidate proves to be effective. The vaccine candidate was developed by the University’s Jenner Institute who began trials in humans last week jointly with the University’s Oxford Vaccine Group.
.... AstraZeneca will work with global partners on the international distribution of the vaccine, particularly working to make it available and accessible for low and medium income countries.
Both partners have agreed to operate on a not-for-profit basis for the duration of the coronavirus pandemic, with only the costs of production and distribution being covered.
Against strong bayesianism

An interesting read and I'm happy to see people publishing posts like this.

The more that beliefs are questioned, the more improvements in thinking can be made. (or something to that effect, I'm struggling with the wording).

Why anything that can be for-profit, should be
Anything that can be for-profit, should be.

A vaccine for coronavirus could be for profit. Should it be? What would be the overall effects (advantages?) of:

  • having a vaccination that is sold for profit.

compared to:

  • a vaccine that is available on a not for profit basis.

- - -- ---

Money .... keeps people honest

Does it? Fraud. Tax returns ...

Poll: ask anything to an all-knowing demon edition

I would ask a different question in each case. (about unrelated subjects)

Helping Lily Make Dinner

Well done Lily!

Does Lily want to join the rota and prepare dinner again?

If so, tortilla wraps are fun to do - stuff to weigh and knead (and getting flour all over the place!)

It's a good opportunity to do a bit of math when splitting the dough into pieces (I'd suggest working in grams) and rolling the tortillas can lead to some interesting shapes and designs ...

Various fillings can be prepared to cater for vegans, vegetarians and meat eaters. A mix and match meal for everyone.

Poll: ask anything to an all-knowing demon edition

Who gets to hear the question and answer?

Just me or is there a wider audience (that also know the oracle cannot lie)?

A Significant Portion of COVID-19 Transmission Is Presymptomatic

Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19

We report temporal patterns of viral shedding in 94 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and modeled COVID-19 infectiousness profiles from a separate sample of 77 infector–infectee transmission pairs.
We observed the highest viral load in throat swabs at the time of symptom onset, and inferred that infectiousness peaked on or before symptom onset.
We estimated that 44% (95% confidence interval, 25–69%) of secondary cases were infected during the index cases’ presymptomatic stage, in settings with substantial household clustering, active case finding and quarantine outside the home.
Disease control measures should be adjusted to account for probable substantial presymptomatic transmission.
Do you trust the research on handwriting vs. typing for notes?

Are you reproducing a text-book / full script of lecture or are you making study notes?

Personal experience:

For me, letting go of my need for everything to be neat and complete was a bit step in making notes to learn from. They don't have to be perfect, they need to be useful. A summary in short form, including the key words/points, missing out the rest.

For example, all this text taken from Wikipedia - (no need to actually read it all)

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.[11] Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment.[2][5]
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[12] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2]

Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response.[13] The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown.[2]

Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop.[14] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2]
Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2]

Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot and eye care are important for people with the disease.[2] Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.[2] Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin.[15] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.[16] Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 diabetes.[17] Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.[18]

Reduced to this:

DM = G  PU/PD ↑hunger

 --> ketoacidosis.   heart, kidney, foot ulcers, neuropathy, eyes, cognative probs. 

Type 1 - insulin production  (idiopathic autoimmune beta cells pancreas)

Type 2 - insulin resistance body cells. --> progress to type 1.  ( assoc. factors weight  exercise)

Type 3 - gestational. no prev. hx.  resolves post-partum. 


diet, exercise, X-smoking (obesity sx.)

BP, foot + eye care,

insulin, oral tx 

By reading the text and then condensing it I've spent time considering the words, assessing what the key points are and absorbing along the way (using common notation that I know exactly what it means e.g. PU/PD = polyuria polydipsia = increased urination and increased drinking)

I now have an easy to scan summary to be able to reproduce the full text in an exam. I'm aware that adding words such as "normally" and "most cases" provides the caveats and cover that very little is 100% in medicine.

If you know something there's no real benefit in writing it out in full again but I still found myself adding "beta cells pancreas" to the above notes for completeness.

Whether I take notes this way by handwriting or keyboard doesn't made much difference to the learning/absorption process, but typed notes are much neater, which I like!! And more formatting options are available - easy bold, bigger fonts. Rather than the old highlighter pen.

I've found drawing flow and other diagrams and spider maps by hand is invaluable in some situations though.

How strong is the evidence for hydroxychloroquine?

A study, not peer-reviewed:

Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19

HC= hydroxychloroquine,

HC+AZ = hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin

no HC = no hydroxychloroquine

RESULTS: A total of 368 patients were evaluated
(HC, n=97; . HC+AZ, n=113; . no HC, n=158).
Rates of death in the HC, HC+AZ, and no HC groups were 27.8%, 22.1%, 11.4%, respectively.
Rates of ventilation in the HC, HC+AZ, and no HC groups were 13.3%, 6.9%, 14.1%, respectively.
Compared to the no HC group, the risk of death from any cause was higher in the HC group (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.10 to 6.17; P=0.03) but not in the HC+AZ group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.56 to 2.32; P=0.72).
The risk of ventilation was similar in the HC group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.53 to 3.79; P=0.48) and in the HC+AZ group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.12; P=0.09), compared to the no HC group.

In this study, we found no evidence that use of hydroxychloroquine, either with or without azithromycin, reduced the risk of mechanical ventilation in patients hospitalized with Covid-19.
An association of increased overall mortality was identified in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone.
These findings highlight the importance of awaiting the results of ongoing prospective, randomized, controlled studies before widespread adoption of these drugs.
However, given its increasingly widespread use, not only as therapy but also as prophylaxis for Covid-19, there is a great and immediate need to obtain insights into the clinical outcomes among patients currently treated with hydroxychloroquine, particularly because of the non-negligible toxicities associated with its use.
April Coronavirus Open Thread

Oxford COVID-19 vaccine begins human trial stage

The vaccine is based on an adenovirus vaccine vector and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein,
Load More