- Was there an objective reality that existed whether or not we could ever observe it?
- Were there laws that restored strict causality to phenomena that seemed inherently random?
- Was everything in the universe predetermined?
- When do political parties start being a bad idea?
- Why don't we want the government controlling the internet but we're okay with them controlling our education system?
- How is it that outcomes can be likely and not happen and outcomes can be unlikely and still happen?
- Is a democracy possible in the information age? Or has social media and technology changed the way humans function in a "democracy" and policy hasn't caught up yet?
- Where do jokes come from?
- How many people do I admire that are actually miserable?
- Which people know what the right answers are, but no one listens to because they either 1. Don't look the part 2. Don't act like the part 3. Don't talk like the part?
- Is there really a difference between a more-disciplined person and a less-disciplined person, or do they just experience their temptations in different ways?
- Why isn't anyone building something like the Statue of Liberty, The Eiffel Tower, or The Great Bridge anymore? The coolest thing in recent years may be modern looking skyscrapers.
- How is it some things existed in the past but there's no record of them in the present (online)?
- There are a certain set of questions/problems that every person is faced with: how to choose a spouse, how to pick a career (and when to leave the one you're in), how to deal with difficult family members, how to deal with losing someone you love, how to enjoy life outside of work, and many more. Why is there no Thesis on Life or an almanack that answers these questions? Tim Ferris's Tribe of Mentors is the closest thing I'm aware of and it's still a long way off. This would be a really, really fun project to work on.
When people start voting for the bad guys just because they are in a party with some good guys.
There seems to be something inherently authoritarian about education, so the government fits the genre. Internet is supposed to be fun, so the government does not fit here.
Depends on what you mean by "democracy". Counting votes is actually easier in the information age.
Probably more than you expect, because hiding the misery usually makes one more admirable.
I can be either kind depending on the situation; in my case one important difference is the emotional state. If I feel optimistic, it is easier to overcome temptations.
These responses are based on my experiences, not through concrete evidence.
When you put humans in them.
I wouldn't say we're okay with it, we've reached a point of inertia I'd say.
The need to alleviate the burden of living.
Anything genetic aside, I'd say upbringing and mindset.
There exist other goals that achieve more utility for the respective agents that hold this kind of power?
Things get lost in time. People have to look out for them and bring them to surface.
I haven't found exactly one as you describe, but I'd say many of your subquestions are either complex problems found in books by themselvs, or can be described in little text in trying to give concrete (but not complete) advice.
For example (short answer, long answer)
Many of your questions here aren't easy to unpack. For myself, it feels constructive to use cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to get curious about my "instinctual" answers to these, and see if I want to replace these with better and more constructive answers. Currently going though books in this series.