Are there specific statistics about the metrics you are referring to?
I'm not sure what you mean with extremist Western religions. Mormonism that might be one of the more extreme Western religion correlates with longer life-span. In many cases it's very hard to estimate outcomes on the metrics I care about.
Knowing things is hard.
When it comes to things like wearing a coat it's very hard to know because the control group is quite small. The counter-examples I have in mind from people I personally know is one Wim Hof guy who shovels snow in a T-shirt. The other example is Julian Assange in his earlier years. There's no example that comes to my mind of someone who went around in winter without a coat and who seems to be ineffective.
Install new windows for the HQ office, and I'll recommend your company for the contract"
This still feels corrupt to me. Having competitive bidding where the best bid gets selected seems to be an important feature of good governance and making deals that circumvent the system of competitive bidding is corrupting such good governance.
Corruption seems to me like a phenomena that's of a different nature then just looking to advance in the politics in an organization by exchanging political favors with each other. If Bob speaks in favor of Alice proposal on A in exchange for Alice speaking in favor of Bob's proposal B that's not corrupt.
In my mental model a key factor of corruption is that it's about exchanging things of a different nature with each other.
If Bob speaks in favor of Alice proposal on A because Alice gives him a personal introduction to a doctor that's a specialist for an illness under which Bob suffers, that's corrupt because it's exchanging things of a different nature.
I haven't measured my 25(OH)D level since.
When you say "the military" do you mean "the US military" here? I would be surprised if that's a consistent phenomena over the different militarizes that exist.
Because evolution got sheep to produce wool that's not made in a way that it's easy for bacteria to infest. On the other hand cotton + sweat is a combination that gets bacteria to grow fast.
Cotton is simply a crappy but cheap material for making clothes.
Even if they were posturing and not truly passionate, that leaves the question of how to tell from the outside before entering an organization.
Survey response honesty seems to me like a really great way. There's a way to measure it that's about where you ask two questions:
1) How many days per week do you on average do X?
2) Did you do X yesterday?
I think it would be great to have such a question pair in the various censi that we have. I think Schwitzgebel had examples such as eating meat in his questions.
Zvi listed multiple points. I think that it's possible that there are militarizes where the soldiers have a strong belief that they are fighting for the right thing and thus have a lot of soul in the game. A good chunk of the military hierarchy also has skin in the game. Very few people in the military hierarchy would first tell you about there supervisor if you ask them to describe their job.