I think this is going to be a difficult question to give a concrete answer to. (For many reasons: data isn't public, growth is very lumpy)
Probably the best approximation I can think of would be betting volumes in equivalent events over time.
US Presidential elections matched volumes on Betfair (in £):
* 2008: ~15mm (Source)
* 2012: ~40mm (Source)
* 2016: ~200mm (Source)
* 2020: ~1700mm (~600mm pre-event which is possibly more relevant)
That's a ~40x over 12 years, or ~35%/year.
We'll get another data point after the French Election this year and I guess it would be interesting to look at some other comparable events. (UK General Elections).
Another place we could look at is volumes on PredictIt, although that's really just a proxy for number of markets. You could also look at volumes on Polymarket or one of the other crypto exchanges.