Should people buy specific stocks instead of ETFs? Which ones?
Unless you have expert knowledge of a domain or insider trading information then the answer to that question is probably no. We know that barring quants (survivor bias?), ETFs perform better than manual stock picks.
Everything I've seen in investing indicates that for the average person it is better to buy stocks, probably ETFs, and simply forget (ie. don't look at their pricing every five minutes) about them. Long term growth is what matters, but people get spooked by short term volatility.
How should we get Exposure to China? Do we want/need China tech exposure?
China is an authoritarian communism regime on a good day, so giving them your money is literally worse than burning it.
Pragmatically, they're running death camps and locking horns with more than half the planet right now. This is off the back of them killing many of our people with their dirty unhygienic ways creating covid, and their duplicitous and mendacious government deliberately allowing it to spread to the world. Hong Kong and it's financial and business markets being shafted by Chinese megalomania isn't exactly helpful either. Giving your money to that level of evil and stupid is both immoral and foolish.
If you are both immoral and foolish it is also worth bearing in mind in the event of escalation either China, your own government, or both are likely to void your investment. When a government can legally steal from you, they will.
How do we get exposure to areas besides the USA and China? Do we need to?
Stock markets, and probably, unless you believe that there's nobody capable of doing solid work outside the US and China.
I don't know the market, but I'd be really surprised if Israel wasn't putting money into AI. If there's anyone that knows a weapon technology when they see one, it's them.
Should we invest in land if we expect AI progress?
I have considered this in light of the increase in automation. It's pretty obvious that the skill floor on employment will continue to rise as it has. We don't need AI to have widespread human obsolescence. We've already seen what job losses from economic collapses do to people and whole countries, so it's worth considering what it would be like to live in tough times.
Land isn't ever going to be obsolete, nor is there likely to suddenly be more of it. If that is so then it is safe to assume that scarcity can be profited from. That being said, land, unless it is of low value, tends to be horrendously expensive. You need a lot of money to get into this game.
The thing I'm considering as a hedge against difficult times is sin. Specifically, brewing and distilling. This is effectively legal drug dealing, and people will pay for drugs before they'll pay for food, so it's not like selling will be difficult. Where I am the laws and permits aren't prohibitive, and as long as you don't sell too much the taxation regime isn't too horrible.
Should we directly invest in hardware (Nvidia has already gone up a lot)?
As Intel stock crashing due to getting lapped by AMD presently shows, winning and losing, even with a solid record, happens a lot in the processor sector. GPUs are nothing more than specialised processors. This is a high volatility area, so unless you're comfortable with that kind of risk I'd steer clear of it.