Crossposted from the AI Alignment Forum. May contain more technical jargon than usual.

This would have been a submission to the FTX AI worldview prize. I’d like to thank Daniel Kokotajlo, Ege Erdil, Tamay Besiroglu, Jaime Sevilla, Anson Ho, Keith Wynroe, Pablo Villalobos and Simon Grimm for feedback and discussions. Criticism and feedback are welcome. This post represents my personal views. 

Update Dec 2023: I now think timelines faster than my aggressive prediction in this post are accurate. My median is now 2030 or earlier.

The causal story for this post was: I first collected my disagreements with the bio anchors report and adapted the model. This then led to shorter timelines. I did NOT only collect disagreements that lead to shorter timelines. If my disagreements would have led to longer timelines, this post would argue for longer timelines. 

I think the bio anchors report (the one from 2020, not Ajeya’s personal updates) puts too little weight on short timelines. I also think that there are a lot of plausible arguments for short timelines that are not well-documented or at least not part of a public model. The bio anchors approach is obviously only one possible way to think about timelines but it is currently the canonical model that many people refer to. I, therefore, think of the following post as “if bio anchors influence your timelines, then you should really consider these arguments and, as a consequence, put more weight on short timelines if you agree with them”. I think there are important considerations that are hard to model with bio anchors and therefore also added my personal timelines in the table below for reference.

My best guess bio anchors adaption suggests a median estimate for the availability of compute to train TAI of 2036 (10th percentile: 2025, 75th percentile: 2052). Note that this is not the same as predicting the widespread deployment of AI. Furthermore, I think that the time “when AI has the potential to be dangerous” is earlier than my estimate of TAI because I think that this poses a lower requirement than the potential to be economically transformative (so even though the median estimate for TAI is 2036, I wouldn’t be that surprised if, let’s say 2033 AIs, could deal some severe societal harm, e.g. > $100B in economic damage).

You can find all material related to this piece including the colab notebook, the spreadsheets and the long version in this google folder.

Executive summary

I think some of the assumptions in the bio anchors report are not accurate. These disagreements still apply to Ajeya’s personal updates on timelines. In this post, I want to lay out my disagreements and provide a modified alternative model that includes my best guesses. 

Important: To model the probability of transformative AI in a given year, the bio anchors report uses the availability of compute (e.g. see this summary). This means that the bio anchors approach is NOT a prediction for when this AI has been trained and rolled out or when the economy has been transformed by such an ML model, it merely predicts when such a model could be trained. I think it could take multiple (I guess 0-4) years until such a model is engineered, trained and actually has a transformative economic impact. 

My disagreements

You can find the long version of all of the disagreements in this google doc, the following is just a summary. 

  • I think the baseline for human anchors is too high since humans were “trained” in very inefficient ways compared to NNs. For example, I expect humans to need less compute and smaller brains if we were able to learn on more data or use parallelization. Besides compute efficiency, there are further constraints on humans such as energy use, that don’t apply to ML systems. To compensate for the data constraint, I expect human brains to be bigger than they would need to be without them. The energy constraint could imply that human brains are already very efficient but there are alternative interpretations. [jump to section]
  • I think the report does not include a crucial component of algorithmic efficiency which I call “software for hardware” for lack of a better description. It includes progress in AI accelerators such as TPUs (+the software they enable), software like PyTorch, compilers, libraries like DeepSpeed and related concepts. The current estimate for algorithmic efficiency does not include the progress coming from this billion-dollar industry. [jump to section]
  • I think the report’s estimate for algorithmic progress is too low in general. It seems like progress in transformers is faster than in vision models and the current way of estimating algorithmic progress doesn’t capture some important components. [jump to section]
  • I think the report does not include algorithmic improvements coming from more and more powerful AI, e.g. AI being used to improve the speed of matrix multiplication, AI being used to automate prompt engineering or narrow AIs that assist with research. This automation loop seems like a crucial component for AI timelines. [jump to section]
  • I think the evolution anchor is a bit implausible and currently has too much weight. This is mostly because SGD is much more efficient than evolutionary algorithms and because ML systems can include lots of human knowledge and thus “skip” large parts of evolution. [jump to section]
  • I think the genome anchor is implausible and currently has too much weight. This is mostly because the translation from bytes in the genome to parameters in a NN seems implausible to me. [jump to section]
  • I think the report is too generous with its predictions about hardware progress and the GPU price-performance progress will get worse in the future. This is my only disagreement that makes timelines longer. Update Dec 2023: I was probably wrong here. Compute progress is faster when you control for precision and tensor cores [jump to section]
  • Intuitions: Things in AI are moving faster than I anticipated and people who work full-time with AI often tend to have shorter timelines. Both of these make me less skeptical of short or very short timelines. [jump to section]
  • I think the report’s update against current levels of compute is too radical. A model like GPT-5 or Gato 3 could be transformative IMO (this is not my median estimate but it doesn’t seem completely implausible). I provide reasons for why I think that these “low” levels of compute could already be transformative. [jump to section]
  • There are still a number of things I’m not modeling or am unsure about. These include regulation and government interventions, horizon length (I’m not sure if the concept captures exactly what we care about but don’t have a better alternative), international conflicts, pandemics, financial crises, etc. All of these would shift my estimates back by a bit. However, I think AI is already so powerful that these disruptions can’t stop its progress--in a sense, the genie is out of the bottle. [jump to section]

The resulting model

The main changes from the original bio anchors model are

  1. Lowering the FLOP/s needed for TAI compared to Human FLOP/s
  2. Lowering the doubling time of algorithmic progress
  3. Changing the weighing of some anchors
  4. Some smaller changes; see here for details. 

I tried to change as few parameters as possible from the original report. You can find an overview of the different parameters in the table below and the resulting best guess in the following figure.

 Aggressive - bio anchors (Marius)Best guess - bio anchors (Marius)Independent impression (Marius)Ajeya’s best guess (2020)
Algorithmic progress doubling time1.-1.3 years1.3-1.6 years1.3-1.6 years2-3.5 years

Compute progress

doubling time

2.5 years2.8 years3 years2.5 years
Model FLOPS vs. brain FLOPS (=1e15) median-1-0.5-0.2+1
Lifetime anchor16%10%10%5%
Short NN anchor40%24%30%20%
Medium NN anchor20%35%31%30%
Long NN anchor10%17%13%15%
Evolution anchor3%3%5%10%
Genome anchor1%1%1%10%
10th percentile estimate<2025~2025~2028~2032
Median(=50%) estimate~2032~2036~2041~2052
75th percentile estimate~2038~2052~2058~2085


My main takeaways from the updates to the model are

  1. If you think that the compute requirements for AI is lower than that for humans (which I think is plausible for all of the reasons outlined below) then most of the probability mass for TAI is between 2025 and 2035 rather than 2035 and 2045 as Ajeya’s model would suggest.
  2. In the short timeline scenario, there is some probability mass before 2025 (~15%). I would think of this as the “transformer TAI hypothesis”, i.e. that just scaling transformers for one more OOM and some engineering will be sufficient for TAI. Note that this doesn’t mean there will be TAI in 2025 just that it would be possible to train it.
  3. Thinking about the adaptions to the inputs of the bio anchor model and then computing the resulting outputs made my timelines shorter. I didn’t actively intend to produce shorter timelines but the more I looked at the assumptions in bio anchors, the more I thought “This estimate is too conservative for the evidence that I’m aware of”.
  4. The uncertainty from the model is probably too low, i.e. the model is overconfident because core variables like compute price halving time and algorithmic efficiency are modeled as static singular values rather than distributions that change over time. This is one reason why my personal timelines (as shown in the table) are a bit more spread than my best guess bio anchors adaption.

To complete the picture, this is the full distribution for my aggressive estimate:

And for my independent impression:

Note that the exact weights for my personal estimate are not that meaningful because I adapted them to include considerations that are not part of the current bio anchors model. Since it is hard to model something that is not part of the model, you should mostly ignore the anchor weights and only look at the final distribution. These “other considerations” include unknown unknowns, disruptions of the global economy, pandemics, wars, etc. all of which add uncertainty and lengthen timelines. 

As you can see, I personally still think that 2025-2040 is the timespan that is most likely for TAI but I have more weight on longer timelines than the other two estimates. My personal timelines (called independent impression in the table) are also much more uncertain than the other estimates because I find arguments for very short and for much longer timelines convincing and don’t feel like I have a good angle for resolving this conflict at the moment. Additionally, compute halving time and algorithmic progress halving time are currently static point estimates and I think optimally they would be distributions that change over time. This uncertainty is currently not captured and I, therefore, try to introduce it post-hoc. Furthermore, I want to emphasize that I think that relevant dangers from AI arise before we get to TAI, so don’t mistake my economic estimates for an estimate of “when could AI be dangerous”. I think this can happen 5-15 years before TAI, so somewhere between 2015 and 2035 in my forecasts.
Update: After more conversations and thinking, my timelines are best reflected by the aggressive estimate above. 2030 or earlier is now my median estimate for AGI and I'm mostly confused about TAI because I have conflicting beliefs about how exactly the economic impact of powerful AI is going to play out. 

Final words

There is a chance I misunderstood something in the report or that I modified Ajeya’s code in an incorrect way. Overall, I’m still not sure how much weight we should put on the bio anchors approach to forecasting TAI in general, but it currently is the canonical approach for timeline modeling so its accuracy matters. Feedback and criticism are appreciated. Feel free to reach out to me if you disagree with something in this piece.


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In general, I have noticed a pattern where people are dismissive of recursive self improvement. To the extent people are still believing this, I would like to suggest this is a cached thought that needs to be refreshed. 

When it seemed like models with a chance of understanding code or mathematics were a long ways off - which it did (checks notes) two years ago, this may have seemed sane. I don't think it seems sane anymore.

What would it look like to be on the precipice of a criticality threshold?  I think it looks like increasingly capable models making large strides in coding and mathematics. I think it looks like feeding all of human scientific output into large language models. I think it looks a world where a bunch of corporations are throwing hundreds of millions of dollars into coding models and are now in the process of doing the obvious things that are obvious to everyone

There's a garbage article going around with rumors of GPT-4, which appears to be mostly wrong. But from slightly-more reliable rumors, I've heard it's amazing and they're picking the low-hanging data set optimization fruits.

The threshold for criticality, in my opinion, requires a model capable of understanding the code that produced it as well as a certain amount of scientific intuition and common sense. This no longer seems very far away to me.

But then, I'm no ML expert. 


It may also need a structured training environment and heuristic to select for generality.

The structured training environment is a set of tasks that train the machine a large breadth of base knowledge and skills to be a general AI.

The heuristic is just the point system : what metric are we selecting AI candidates by. Presumably we want a metric that selects simpler and smaller candidates with architecture that are heavily reused - something that looks like the topology of a brain - but maybe that won't work.

So the explosion takes several things: compute, recursion, a software stack framework that is composable enough for automated design iteration, a bench, a heuristic.

Nukes weren't really simple either, there were a lot of steps especially for the first implosion device. It took an immense amount of money and resources from the time physicists realized it was possible.

I think people are ignoring criticality because it hasn't shown any gain in the history of ai because past systems were too simple. It's not a proven track to success. What does work is bigass transformers.

I suppose I expect recursive self-improvement to play out in the course of months not years. And I worry groups like OpenAI are insane enough to pursue recursive self improvement as an explicit engineering goal. (Altman seems to be a moral realist, explicitly says he thinks the orthogonality thesis is false.) From the outside, it will appear instant as there will be a perceived discontinuity when the fact that it has achieved a decisive strategic advantage becomes obvious. 


Well again remember a nuclear device is a critical mass of weapons grade material.

Anything less than weapons grade and nothing happens.

Anything less than sudden explosive combination of the materials and the device will heat itself up and blast itself apart with sub kiloton yield.

So analogy wise : current llms can "babble" out code that sometimes even works. They are not trained on RL selecting for correct and functional code.

Self improvement by code generation isn't yet possible.

Other groups have tried making neural networks composable, and using one neural network based agent to design others. It is also not good enough for recursion but this is how autoML works.

Basically our enrichment isn't high enough and so nothing will happen. The recursion quenches itself before it can start, the first generation output isn't even functional.

But yes, at some future point in time it WILL be strong enough and crazy shit will happen. I mean think about the nuclear example: all those decades of discovering nuclear physics, fission, the chain reaction, building a nuclear reactor, purifying the plutonium...all that time and the interesting event happened in milliseconds.

I'm honestly not even sure whether this comment is in support of or against my disagreements. 

I'm skeptical of the "recursive self-improvement leads to enormous gains in intelligence over days" story but I support the "more automation leads to faster R&D leads to more automation, etc." story which is also a form of recursive self-improvement-just over the span of years rather than days. 


Recursion is an empirical fact.  It works numerous places.  Computing itself that led to AI was recursive - the tools that allow for high end/high performance silicon chips require previous generations of those chips to function.  (to be fair the coupling is loose, Intel could design better chips using 5-10 year old desktops and servers and some of their equipment is that outdated)

Electric power generator production for all currently used types require electric power from prior generators, etc.  

But yeah it so far hasn't happened in days.

I think making progress on ML is pretty hard.  In order for a single AI to self improve quickly enough that it changed timelines, it would have to improve close to as fast as the speed at which all of the humans working on it could improve it.  I don't know why you would expect to see such superhuman coding/science capabilities without other kinds of superintelligence.

Furthermore, I think that the time “when AI has the potential to be dangerous” is earlier than my estimate of TAI because I think that this poses a lower requirement than the potential to be economically transformative

Doesn't the AI need at least the capacity to autonomously manufacture computer chips and some kind of robot (nano or otherwise)? If the AI can't do that, it can't survive and reproduce itself after it kills us. If the AI can do that, it would be economically transformative. (Although if we are in a fast takeoff situation, maybe the AI is economically transformative for a total for 23 whole minutes before it kills us.)

I think dangerous doesn't have to imply that it can replicate itself. Doing zero-shot shenanigans on the stock market causing a recession and then being turned off also counts as dangerous in my books. 


Note that one dangerous scenario is if the AI is able to make highly convincing arguments to scam humans into giving the AI more power. Also it doesn't matter if it kills us in a way that leaves the AI doomed also, as humans would still be dead.

I think that an AI that is competent enough to kill us would be competent enough to survive afterwards, and would be savvy enough to not kill us until we became expendable.


Again it doesn't have to work this way at all.  Some runaway optimizer trying to drive user engagement could inadvertently kill us all.  It need not be intelligent enough to ensure it survives the aftermath.

I mean a deadlier version of covid could have theoretically ended us right here.  Especially if it killed by medium term genetic damage or something that let it's victims live long enough to spread it.

Some runaway optimizer trying to drive user engagement could inadvertently kill us all.

Could you go into more detail about this scenario? I'm having trouble visualizing how ad-AI can cause human extinction.


I am assuming some scam similar to a political party or religion the optimizer cooks up. The optimizer is given some pendantic goal completely unrelated, aka paperclips or make users keep scrolling, and it generates the scam from the rich library of human prior art.

Remember, humans fall for these scams even when the author, say L R Hubbard, openly writes that he is inventing a scam. Or a political party selects someone as their leader who obviously is only out for themselves and makes this clear over and over. Or we have extant writing on how an entire religion was invented from non-existent engraved plates no one but the scammer ever saw.

So an AI that promises some unlikely reward and has already caused people's deaths and is obviously only out for itself might be able to scam humans into hosting it and giving it whatever it demands. And as a side effect this kills everyone. And it's primary tool might be regurgitating prior human scam elements using an LLM.

I don't have the rest of the scenario mapped, I am just concerned this is a vulnerability.

Existing early agents (Facebook engagement tooling) seem to have made political parties extreme, which has lead to a few hundred thousand extra deaths in the USA. (From resistance to rational COVID policies).

The Ukraine war is not from AI but gives a recent example where poor information leads to bad outcomes for all players. (The primary decision maker, Putin, was misinformed as to the actual outcome of attempting the attack)

So a screw up big enough to kill everyone I don't know, but there obviously are ways it could happen. Chains of events that lead to nuclear wars or modified viruses capable of causing extinction are the obvious ones.

I still stand behind most of the disagreements that I presented in this post. There was one prediction that would make timelines longer because I thought compute hardware progress was slower than Moore's law. I now mostly think this argument is wrong because it relies on FP32 precision. However, lower precision formats and tensor cores are the norm in ML, and if you take them into account, compute hardware improvements are faster than Moore's law. We wrote a piece with Epoch on this:

If anything, my disagreements have become stronger and my timelines have become shorter over time. Even the aggressive model I present in the post seems too conservative for my current views and my median date is 2030 or earlier. I have substantial probability mass on an AI that could automate most current jobs before 2026 which I didn't have at the time of writing.

I also want to point out that Daniel Kokotajlo, whom I spent some time talking about bio anchors and Tom Davidson's takeoff model with, seemed to have consistently better intuitions than me (or anyone else I'm aware of) on timelines. The jury is still out there, but so far it looks like reality follows his predictions more than mine. At least in my case, I updated significantly toward shorter timelines multiple times due to arguments he made. 

My best guess bio anchors adaption suggests a median estimate for the availability of compute to train TAI

My best guess is in the past. I think GPT3 levels of compute and data are sufficient, with the right algorithm, to make a superhuman AI. 

  • Willingness to spend: Cotra assumes that the willingness to spend on Machine Learning training runs should be capped at 1% the GDP of the largest country, referencing previous case studies with megaprojects (e.g. the Manhattan Project), and should follow a doubling time of 2 years after 2025.

This seems like a critical decision term.  

          1.  Nvidia charges $33k per H100.  Yet the die is a similar size as the 4090 GPU, meaning nvidia could likely still break even were they to charge $1500 per H100. 

Just imagine a counterfactual: A large government (China, USA etc) decides they don't enjoy losing and invests 1% of GDP.  They pressure Nvidia, or in China's case, get domestic industry to develop a comparable (for AI training only which reduces the complexity) product and sell it for closer to cost.  

That's a factor of 22 in cost, or 9 years overnight.  Also I'm having trouble teasing out the 'willingness to spend' baseline.  Is this what industry is spending now, spread across many separate efforts and not all in to train one AGI?  It looks like 1% is the ceiling.  Meaning if a government decided in 2023 that training AGI was a worthy endeavor, and the software framework were in place that would scale to AGI (it isn't):

 Would 1% of US GDP give them enough compute at 2023 prices, if the compute were purchased at near cost, to train an AGI?

As a side note, 1% of US GDP is only 230 billion dollars.  Google's 2021 revenue was 281 billion.  Iff a tech company could make the case to investors that training AGI would pay off it sounds like a private investment funding the project is possible.