**Logic and Mathematics** are deductive systems, where the conclusion of a successful argument follows necessarily from its premises, given the axioms of the system you’re using: number theory, geometry, predicate logic, etc.

- Valid argument - An argument is valid when it contains no logical fallacies.
- Sound argument - An argument that is valid and whose premises are all true. In other words, the premises are true and the conclusion necessarily follows from them, making the conclusion true as well.
- Formal proof - A set of steps from axiom(s) and previous proof(s) which follows the rules of induction of a mathematical system.
- Logical Uncertainty
- Logical Induction
- Probability & Statistics

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