Crossposted from the AI Alignment Forum. May contain more technical jargon than usual.

I talk here about how a mathematician mindset can be useful for AI alignment. But first, a puzzle:

Given , what is the least number such that for , the base representation of consists entirely of 0s and 1s?

If you want to think about it yourself, stop reading.

For =2, =2.

For =3, =3.

For =4, =4.

For