Over the past few years, I’ve gained an interest in securing options for residency outside of my home country, in particular via second citizenship.
There are a number of potential benefits that can arise from having a second residency option. These include professional and education opportunities, other economic opportunities, the ability to mitigate a variety of potential risks via relocation, travel benefits, and the potential extendability of these benefits to a spouse, descendants, or in rare cases friends and colleagues.
In this post I:
Second citizenships can...
There are a number of countries still allowing US citizens to enter as tourists.
Most places will have limits to how long you can stay in them (e.g. 90 days for the UK or EU). (1) (<- See footnotes) There are some options for more long-term stays, in particular:
Estonia has launched a 1-year visa for remote / digital workers. Though it was planned for some time, that it launched during the pandemic is seemingly indicative of their willingness to accept applications during this time.
Bermuda (overseas territory of the UK) has launched a 1-year remote worker visa as well; particularly for the pandemic.
St. Lucia has also launched a 1-year remote worker visa.
You can spend 3 months in the UK and 3 months in the EU (e.g. via Ireland) to get a total of 6 months abroad, which may be sufficient for most (or sufficient to plan another option).
Germany has long had an independent contractor/entrepreneurship visa; I’m unsure if it has been affected by the pandemic. I secured this visa around 2011/2012. At that time, the requirements to secure the visa were not too onerous and mainly involved proof that you were staying in Germany, had sufficient funds, and were an independent contractor or entrepreneur. I believe it was renewable indefinitely.One of the most difficult aspects of securing it was that the required documentation was a moving target; online sources conflicted with one another and each reviewer of your application seemingly applied their own new criteria as well. As a result, one of the most successful strategies was insistence; arguing with your reviewer and demonstrating how you did in fact have sufficient documentation and that they were wrong. Hopefully, this has now changed to be more straightforward and less dependent on having a willingness to be highly insistent.
I know little about it, but I believe Portugal has a visa you can secure with proof that you plan to establish residency in Portugal and that you have a stable and regular source of significant income from abroad (enough to easily live off of).
Residency can refer to citizenship, permanent residency, temporary (short- or long-term, renewable or nonrenewable) visas, or visa-free visits.
Generally, it is not necessary to limit your number of applications for residency or citizenship. (6) That said, you may choose to prioritize on the basis of a number of different factors.
You may choose to apply or not apply to a program on the basis of which documents you have available (e.g. which ancestors you have records for). It may be worth applying even with a low likelihood of success if you have all the required documentation to submit an application, while other programs that would very likely be successful may not be worth applying to until the necessary documents can be obtained.The form in which these need to be provided may range quite a bit as well. The following are the potential possibilities:
I track the documents required for each place I’m applying with something similar to this linked sheet.
I’ve been surprised to find that there are a number of options for second residency and citizenship; they’re often more accessible than I’d anticipated, though usually still time-intensive and potentially difficult to get. There are four categories of ways to get a second citizenship / residency:
Panama offers a “friendly-nations visa” that provides permanent residency. This is instantly obtainable (no residency requirement), if you’re a citizen of one of ~50 countries that they have selected. This is particularly appealing for a few reasons:
COFA: Palau, Micronesia, and the Marshall Islands
COFA stands for “The Compact of Free Association”. It is an agreement between the US and Palau, Micronesia, and the Marshall Islands. The summary of this agreement that I’ve read states that in exchange for the US being able to maintain military bases in these countries, the US provides nearly all social services for them (e.g. roads, welfare, etc.). Additionally, the citizens of these countries have the permanent right to live and work in the US, and citizens of the US have the permanent right to live and work in these countries.
People who can demonstrate that they are Jewish (e.g. a letter from a synagogue, ancestors’ gravestones showing they were Jewish, etc.) are permanently entitled to obtain citizenship.
Canada is one of few countries to offer instant permanent residency. To obtain permanent residency, you must get a sufficient number of ‘points’ according to a formula that will ask about things like your age, education level, work experience, marriage status, whether you have a job offer in Canada, etc.. If you apply and are above the points threshold they reset every 3 months, you’re offered permanent residency (and I think you have a year to accept and move there, but I may be wrong.)
Citizenship through in-country birth of a child (Brazil, Argentina, Chile)
Spain and Portugal had programs for granting citizenship to Sephardic Jews. Spain’s recently ended; I’ve heard Portugal’s is still in place. I don’t know much else about it.
Digital Nomad Visas
See this linked section above
Unless you already have documentation of your family history, it is likely that you’ll need to engage in at least a little genealogy. I have a section on this below.
There are a number of countries that offer citizenship through ancestry (most often European countries). Wherever your ancestors are from, it is likely worth Googling if they offer citizenship through ancestry and also reaching out to the embassy to ask as well (I emailed the consulate of a country that did not say they offer citizenship through ancestry anywhere I could find online, and they still said if I submitted documentation of my ancestry they’d consider granting citizenship). Most lists I’ve found of which countries offer citizenship through ancestry are very incomplete.
Additionally, it seems the rules regarding citizenship through ancestry are often not well-determined. I’ve seen multiple instances of the regulations being written differently on different government websites, I’ve heard of successes & failures that don’t align with the regulations, and many countries do leave the decision about your citizenship up to the discretion of whoever happens to be reviewing your application.
General advice for pursuing citizenship through ancestry
Citizenship (or Residence) Through Ancestry Programs I’ve Heard Of (not at all exhaustive):
Hungary has one of the most commonly used citizenship through ancestry programs. I think it’s decently liberal, but I could be mistaken. The ways in which I think (with low confidence) that it is liberal is that:
Certainly, if you have ancestors up to the fourth generation who lived in the “Kingdom of Hungary” borders of Austria-Hungary, you are eligible for citizenship. There are two different programs, one in which you must demonstrate Hungarian language proficiency, and another in which you do not need to do so.I don’t fully recall what determines whether you need to demonstrate you can speak Hungarian or not, but I think it has to do both with the timing of your ancestors leaving Hungary and whether or not they were from the Kingdom of Hungary proper or not.
If you do need to speak Hungarian for your application, it is assessed informally via the short (10 min) conversation you have when submitting your application in person at the embassy or consulate. Two teachers who have prepared students for this conversation in the past estimated students can learn sufficient Hungarian in 4 months, with 2 hour long lessons per week. It seems a reasonable cost-efficient and well-tested method of preparing for this conversation is via teachers on https://www.italki.com/. I estimated my total cost (not accounting for opportunity cost of time) would be $641, based on an hourly pay rate to the teacher of $19. If you’re more adept at language learning than the average individual or want to select a less expensive teacher, this could perhaps be less. Alternatively, it does seem many people learn Hungarian to an extent that seems beyond this amount, and some of them seem to think it was necessary for their application to be accepted.Some embassies are known for being more or less lenient than others, and regardless of the embassy you select, you will have a certain amount of luck based on the strictness with which the person you submit your application to assesses your Hungarian. You can apply again if you do not pass.
Hungary requires official copies of birth and marriage certificates going back to your ancestor who lived in the relevant geography.
Latvia offers citizenship by descent under its “exiles” program to those whose ancestors were presumably Latvian citizens at the time of World War II beginning and who left Latvia prior to its regaining independence in 1990. In order to substantiate the former, typical guidance is that you must find documentation implying Latvian citizenship that is from 1933-1940, although some claim that documents as early as the late 1920s are sometimes accepted as sufficient proof. Unless you are already in possession of sufficient proof, the likely best step is to reach out to the Latvian Archives. The Latvian Archives are particularly great to work with compared to those of other countries; they will perform a complete genealogical search on your family for under $100 and are highly communicative (though the process does take months). In at least my case, they found a lot of documentation that was not only helpful for citizenship applications, but also was informative of my family’s history.Latvia requires Apostilles for most foreign-originating documents that may be submitted for your application.
There is a second Latvian citizenship program “Latvians and Livs” of which I have more limited knowledge. My understanding is that you must demonstrate a genetic Latvian heritage, as well as a strong understanding of Latvian (e.g. at the C1 level), in order to secure Latvian citizenship under that program.
It is possible to secure Lithuanian citizenship by descent, though some of the qualifications to do so are unclear. There are significant discrepancies between what official sources list as qualifying, and what those in Facebook groups say works:
You must provide proof that is suggestive of an ancestor being a Lithuanian citizen
You must provide definitive proof an ancestor was a Lithuanian citizen
Proof can come in a variety of forms, such as documents indicating life in Lithuania (school enrollment, paystubs, etc.), foreign documents showing place of birth or citizenship, etc.
The only acceptable proof is documents issued by the Lithuanian archives
I assign an approximately 50/50 likelihood to the official sources vs. Facebook providing better guidance. The Facebook community (which is overwhelmingly Brazillian) predominantly hires a small number of providers to complete the application process for them, so it doesn’t feel as though the limits of acceptable documentation are as likely to have been explored as they would be with a large group of applicants applying more independently. Conversely, I’ve often found that the implementation of citizenship programs can be quite different than how they’re described on official websites, so I do think Facebook communities often provide relevant valuable information.
Additionally, there are conflicts between official sources, with some saying that a great-grandparent (or more recent ancestor) must have been Lithuanian, while others say you can go up to great-great-grandparents, and at least one other saying ‘any’ direct ancestor is acceptable. In this case, I expect the sources saying ‘any’ direct ancestor is acceptable to be correct.
Lithuania has not been an independent state very long or very often. To apply for citizenship, you must substantiate an ancestor who (plausibly?) had citizenship while Lithuania was independent. I’m uncertain of the exact dates considered to be acceptable, but they’re approximately from 1918-1939. You also must show that this ancestor left Lithuania prior to it regaining its independence in 1990.
Securing documentation to support an application may be difficult (see table above). I found the Lithuanian archives to be both of limited utility and difficult to communicate with. They will perform document searches, and in my case they did find a couple that were relevant, but these searches are highly abbreviated and not comprehensive. To more thoroughly search the Lithuanian archives, you will likely want to hire someone, and the cost of these searches seemingly range from €300-500, with no guarantee of any success. (11) You may want to consider searching the Latvian archives; they seem to hold many documents originating from Lithuania and will perform comprehensive searches.
Most foreign-originating documents need to be Apostilled and officially translated to Lithuanian for the application.I expect to apply for this citizenship sometime in 2021, which may provide some additional information as to acceptable documentation.
Austria has a brand new program that was passed into law in September 2020. It is most clearly intended for those whose ancestors were Austrian citizens and were persecuted, primarily by the Nazis. As a result, if your ancestors meet that definition, you have the most straightforward case.That said, the definitions around the program are written broadly enough that it may be the case that many more people are eligible. It may be that if your ancestors ever considered themselves Austrian (or Austro-Hungarian), and were ever persecuted, you may be eligible. Since this is a brand-new program, we don’t really have data on what will or won’t be acceptable (and the consulates don’t either; they’re providing varied, inconsistent information).As a result, a number of people are currently applying to this program without a clear idea on whether or not they’re eligible. Applying for the program is easier and more straightforward than most; there is no language requirement and you are only required to provide personal copies of any ancestor documentation. You do need to provide an apostilled copy of your birth certificate and an apostilled FBI background check, however.I suspect that there may be an advantage to applying now; I could see Austria being liberal now but tightening the requirements later on once it sees how many applicants there are.
Slovakia offers a status of being designated a “Slovak Living Abroad”. If you apply for and successfully receive this status, you’ll receive the permanent right to come to Slovakia and easily obtain permanent residency.
To become a Slovak living abroad, you need to demonstrate ancestral ties to Slovakia, some form of proof that you speak some Slovak, and some form of proof that you’re culturally tied to Slovakia.
Slovakia has a particularly wide range of strictness with regard to the administration of this program. I’ve seen some accounts of successful applications with very little to substantiate them; proof of having enrolled in a Slovak course (without having started it), for example, was sufficient for one applicant. I’ve also seen accounts of seemingly well-qualified individuals trying for years and being denied this status. The method for certifying language ability and cultural ties that Slovakia seemingly most recommends is to have two others with “Slovak Living Abroad” status sign a statement attesting to your language ability and cultural belonging.A Facebook group was just recently formed for this (~August 2020), so I’ve seen much less discussion of this program than most others I’ve investigated. The group seems popular and should provide significant new data in the upcoming year. A bill has been introduced in Slovakia to allow citizenship via ancestry as well. This would be near-automatically granted to those who are already designated “Slovaks Living Abroad”. But for those who haven’t gained that designation (which may be eliminated if the bill is passed), a language test would be required. Therefore it may be beneficial to apply for this status sooner rather than later.
Other European Options
A number of countries will let you either directly purchase citizenship or gain citizenship via investment in the country. As far as I know, all of these require over $100,000 in order to gain citizenship. Due to my financial status, I have not looked into these much at all. I have noticed that there exist multiple options in the EU and Caribbean; I’m unsure to what extent this option exists elsewhere (though it does seem widespread).
St. Lucia has the only program I’ve found to be notable based on my interests. The reason it is notable is that most of the money can be returned to you after a 5 year period. If I recall correctly, the initial outlay is over $100k, and it sits with the St. Lucian central bank for 5 years. After 5 years, they’ll return it to you minus fees, and the total cost (not accounting for opportunity cost, inflation, interest, etc.) can be something like ~$15,000 for a single person and ~$35,000 for a family of 4. This includes a potentially temporary COVID price reduction and a refund of some of the fees by using a broker with whom you split commission. (12)
Nearly all countries grant those who live there for enough time citizenship. There’s a few of these that have shorter time requirements than others that are worth mentioning.
Typically it takes 10 years of residency to become a Spanish citizen. If you have citizenship of a Latin American country, however, this requirement is reduced to just 2 years.Interestingly, they recognize Puerto Rico in their list of Latin American countries. Puerto Rico does grant “citizenship” to those who are born or live there. I think this typically does not have any legal benefit or meaning, but it is helpful for reducing your time until Spanish citizenship. Notably, it takes only 1 year of residency in Puerto Rico to become a Puerto Rican citizen. So with 3 years of residence, you can become a Spanish citizen (1 year in Puerto Rico, 2 years in Spain).
I believe I’ve read that they have the shortest residency requirement in Europe, at 3 years until citizenship.
Included in the miscellaneous section because permanent residency is instant; citizenship itself can be obtained with 3 years residence.
Belgium, Chile, Argentina, Panama
I’ve read each of these have appealing naturalization programs, but I haven’t looked into them (I likely did very briefly and decided that I wasn’t personally interested).
Acquiring citizenship by ancestry is often most appealing; it typically doesn’t require you to make any major changes in your life, such as relocating or spending a lot of money, but you can receive all the benefits of having a second citizenship.
In order to pursue citizenship by ancestry, you need to know about your family history, and typically, have documentation of it as well. Here’s how to get started with genealogy. (13)
(Footnotes dropped off while transferring my draft from Gdocs to LW; I only realized this now, 5 days after posting)
(1) Column V in this passport comparison sheet has the Wikipedia information on this (from late 2019 I believe).
(2) This linked doc, in particular this section, seemingly validates this plan.
(3) I have read anecdotes of citizenship being taken away; typically in autocratic countries and/or in response to politics or significant levels of crime (e.g. murder). Even in these situations it’s quite rare though.
(4) Although the definition of ‘work’ can be worth investigating. E.g. in the UK, there are some work activities you can perform, and others that you can’t, when entering as a tourist.
(5) Here’s a partially redacted copy of a spreadsheet I’ve made to track potential citizenship options. It hasn’t been edited much for others’ ease of use, and some information may be outdated or incorrect. Numeric information is more likely to be accurate than is written.
(6) For a potential exception see the third con in this section containing a description of Slovakia and Hungary.
(7) More about these levels: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_European_Framework_of_Reference_for_Languages#Common_reference_levels
(8) This is elaborated on further in the “Ancestry Options for Residency and Citizenship” and “Genealogy” sections.
(9) I built this for myself and have not customized this at all for others’ use. It is likely I can make it more user friendly if widely desired. It is a bit hacky and may not work perfectly, additionally, the source Wikipedia info may be inaccurate or out of date.
(10) At some point I found this linked spreadsheet of options. I do not recall the source of it, and I’m uncertain of when it was created and its level of accuracy. I only have explored it briefly, but some may find it quite valuable.
(11) I have found one person offering €150 upfront, with €150 due upon success, though I don’t have any supporting references for them or other reasons to have much belief that they are legitimate or would be successful.
(12) Sovereign Man has a broker with whom they have an agreement to split commission.
(13) FWIW, I’ve found genealogy to be much more interesting and enlightening than expected. I knew a decent amount about human history anyway, but via learning about my personal history I’ve learned quite a bit more about human history as well.
Thank you for this resource.
I believe you can spend 6 months in the UK visa free and there's no rule against more than 6 months out of the year. My understanding is that visitors will be vaccinated and treated for Covid by the NHS -- you may need to pay some modest fee. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visa_policy_of_the_United_Kingdomhttps://www.freemovement.org.uk/there-is-no-180-day-rule-for-visitors-to-the-uk/
This is really interesting; thanks for sharing. I'd actually written above that I thought the limit was 90 days, so I was particularly incorrect there. Reading the freemovement link, it seems:
@Owain_Evans do you know of instances of people successfully spending more than 180 days in the UK without e.g. a work visa?
I don't know of instances. But I'm also interested to know if people have good sources on this. My understanding is that people entering the UK by air (e.g. from the US) now enter via ePassport gates and so don't need to talk to a border/immigration official. This might make it easier to enter than before. At the same time, I would be wary (based on what little I know) of entering without a clear explanation and evidence you are not working in the UK (e.g. epic holiday in UK, clear family reasons).
I've just realized today (~5 days after posting) my footnotes did not transfer from the Google Docs draft. If you are returning to this post after previously reading it, you may want to take a brief look at the footnotes, as there are some potentially valuable resources linked in them.
The Netherlands allows dual nationality only for people from countries that don't allow one to give up their nationality. If your country allows you to give up your nationality, you have to do that in order to become Dutch.
No, I have no idea about how/whether it's enforced.
Israel: "A monthly payment...Assistance finding a place to live...Free Hebrew classes...Probably quite a bit more." There is a basket of benefits: The point is to help in settling into the country.
In total, these are not a lot of money, but do ease the process of absorption.
Thanks for that link! I do think the lack of taxation can be quite a lot of money in certain circumstances.
"[p]rograms in...Israel require your physical presence in the country." You are expected to be moving here, but preliminary registration steps (which that sentence is mostly talking about) are usually done from outside Israel.
Thanks for noting this. FWIW, I think that sentence was talking about the entire process, not just preliminary steps.
Where did you see that "Israel... tax[es] citizens living anywhere in the world"? I've never heard of that. Various sources state that it only the United States and Eritrea.
I'm not sure; it does look like this was inaccurate! Thanks for correcting it.
Writing from NZ. We have friends from US who worked here for 10 years (got permanent residency) before returning to the US in 2018. Because the husband has a significant respiratory complaint, he was very vunerable to Covid, but thanks to permanent residency, they were able to return here, do their 2 weeks in managed isolation facility and are staying here till safe.
I would note that permanent residency makes you subject to local laws as well, at least here. A colleague from US who now has NZ partner was surprized to discover that the law here would regard them as married as far as the Marital Property act. Not a problem for her but not hard to imagine situations where that might be a nasty shock. On the plus side, permanent residents get full voting rights. NZ is cool with dual citizenship which our Iranian neighbours are thankful for. Much easier to travel on a NZ passport.
Of course, no chance of getting into NZ nor I suspect Australia at the moment. Even citizens in long queue with Managed Isolation booked out till June.
Thanks for sharing. NZ is probably one of the most attractive residencies, particularly from a derisking perspective. I'd love to secure residence there, but it seems to in most cases require living and working there (or millions of spare dollars).
FWIW, it did seem to me that entering Australia with a job offer and work visa was feasible when I looked into it ~5 months ago. NZ indeed was more locked down.
I haven't investigated to what extent permanent residency vs. citizenship vs. tourism subjects you to the local laws, but I expect when in-country there is typically little difference. Outside the country, my guess is you're only subject to the laws where you are, and where you're a citizen of, but I could be wrong. The marital property instance is an interesting one, since it's a bit less obvious that would apply to non-citizens.
As far as know, you are correct. You need to live or work here. The millions of spare dollars option has become politically more difficult after Thiel got citizenship. I would also say that mostly law applies in-country but various tax, finance provisions etc apply to permanent residents even if not resident. Similar provision apply in UK so I suspect these are pretty common.It is possible for employers here to make a case to bring in essential workers from overseas, but the bar is very high. While the isolation facilities are being besieged by citizens trying to return, I doubt there will be any change.
I wrote about my experience with Canada (instant permanent residency) - https://scattered-thoughts.net/writing/canadas-express-entry-program/. Worth noting that so far this year they haven't offered any places in the regular program - https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/mandate/policies-operational-instructions-agreements/ministerial-instructions/express-entry-rounds.html.Wesley Aptekar-Cassel wrote about his experience with Taiwan (very quick renenewable work visa) - https://notebook.wesleyac.com/taiwan-gold-card/
The Gold Card seems great; approximately ~$100-$300 for 3 years of a second residency via a method that appears pretty simple and accessible to more people than pretty much any option I discuss above. I'm quite interested in it and going to research more. Thanks so much for sharing.
(I found your Canada experience valuable info-wise as well. It was quicker and more expensive than I'd expected, especially since you said your experience was slower and less expensive than is typical.)
A friend from Singapore did Express Entry and only took three months. Mine appears to have been longer because the London embassy was in the middle of moving buildings. When I went in for my biometrics it was total chaos - they didn't even have a regular camera setup yet so they tried taking pictures in three different rooms. Then after they approved it they kept failing to actually send the approval paperwork. But it seems like normally the process is pretty fast.
I hear that if you live in, say, India then getting things like police certificates is a lot more expensive and can take a long time.
Some previous discussion. Looks like there is some info there that's not in your post, e.g. Paraguay also has a Friendly Nations visa which is easier to maintain than Panama's? (Maintaining the visa on a long-term basis could make sense if you're concerned about a disaster where lots of people are suddenly trying to get out >>> countries like Panama and Paraguay make the Friendly Nations visa harder to obtain, while continuing to honor permanent residency for those who have already been granted it.)
Thanks for linking those; I hadn't seen either of them.
I'm a bit familiar with Paraguay's program and should have included it. One likely reason it didn't come to mind is that the anecdata I've come across about Paraguay's has been pretty negative about it working in practice. That said, most, if not all, accounts I've read have been focused on permanent residency as a path to citizenship rather than permanent residency as an end in itself, and I'm unsure whether difficulties tend to arise in obtaining and maintaining the permanent residency or only in converting that to citizenship.
If the linked commenter is correct, to maintain Paraguay's you have to visit every 3 years while for Panama it is every 2 years, although in Panama you can go up to 5 years and then fill out a simple application for reinstatement.
A lawyer who works on Paraguayan citizenship responded to an email inquiry of mine saying that you must reside in Paraguay for 183+ days of each year in order to pursue citizenship. I don't think this information is definitive, but it suggests another reason why that program many not be attractive.
UPDATE: Many sources confirm that the main difference between the programs is that Panama's provides a path to citizenship without ever staying very long in-country, while Paraguay's is maintainable as a permanent residency with only short occasional visits, but to gain Paraguayan citizenship you must spend the majority of 3 years in-country. One source for this (though I've looked at many): https://nomadcapitalist.com/second-passport/paraguay/
FWIW, a lawyer I'm speaking to about these options says that Paraguay's program is expected to change in the near future as well (Panama's is ending); they sit on the Paraguayan committee that's working on amending the law. See this about Panama: https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/rEbe9o9GErpKgqTMc/assessing-interest-in-group-trip-to-secure-panamanian
An update on Israel:> Citizenship is typically granted 3 months after arrival; you can fill out a simple form to waive this waiting period, however.I think it's not the case, because you receive an internal ID of a citizen immediately after a document check, but they only give you a passport you can use for visas after 3 months (which you can also spend outside the country).Waiving the waiting period is possible in 2022, but you have to be smart about it and go to exactly the right place to do it (because many local governments are against it).> Israel has mandatory conscription into its military if you are under 28 years old and residing in the country.No, for people receiving a citizenship it's under 22 and not under 28.> Israel has worldwide taxationI don't think so? It only taxes you if you are considered to be residing in Israel. There may have some recent (2021-2022) exceptions related to social security, but the amount of tax there is very small.
More cons:- you are prohibited from entering some countries by Israel. Iran, Saudi Arabia, Palestine areas, etc.- if you don't live in Israel, you still have a citizenship but it's sort of crippled - you can't vote, you can only get a more restricted type of passport, you don't have a way to quickly restore access to the medical system> A monthly payment for a number of years if you reside in Israel (I think for a single individual this was about $300 a month)I think the base pay currently is around $900/mo for 6 months. It recently started to be ~doubled to $1800 for a very significant share of people making aliyah, counting all bonuses, but this may not be applicable to everyone and they may remove these additional bonuses from July.
Israel: "Waived taxes for 10 years!... (These may not be fully waived; maybe they’re just reduced. ...)." Reduced is a better way to say it. Various taxes, including income and property tax, are reduced.
The 10-year period you are thinking of is on income generated investments. from outside Israel. If you are American, however, that does not much help as the US government will then grab the tax (as there is then no "double taxation" issue for those 10 years).
No double taxation issue then would be quite the detriment to the appeal of Israel from a taxation perspective. Do you happen to have a source or more info about that?
Thanks for noting this information with more granularity than I provided / had.
If I'm understanding this correctly, Cole V. Commissioner argued this and the courts found that the expatriate had to pay taxes:
As a result of moving to Israel, petitioner qualifies for a 10-year Israeli "tax holiday", which exempts him from Israeli tax on non-Israeli-source capital gain income... we hold that petitioner must recognize total long-term capital gain of $114,947 attributable to his sale of Neogen stock in 2010
As a result of moving to Israel, petitioner qualifies for a 10-year Israeli "tax holiday", which exempts him from Israeli tax on non-Israeli-source capital gain income... we hold that petitioner must recognize total long-term capital gain of $114,947 attributable to his sale of Neogen stock in 2010
I am not sure this I am interpreting this correctly, and would love to hear input from others.
Edit: I spoke to an Israeli tax lawyer who confirmed my understanding, though he said to double check with a US lawyer to be sure.
My understanding is that Czech citizenship by descent is aimed at people who have parents or grandparents who were citizens of Czechia or Czechoslovakia, ruling out most (a guess; me anyway) US people with Czech ancestry, whose ancestors were citizens of Austria-Hungary. Even this is a fairly recent liberalization (sorry, I can't turn up a reference quickly, though I looked into it sometime during 2020, in part out of jealousy of friends with Irish or Italian ancestors).
I did not know about the Slovak Living Abroad program, thanks for noting that ! Based only on a [reddit post](https://ns.reddit.com/r/Slovakia/comments/jr3y5c/application_for_slovak_living_abroad_certificate/) it seems doable (for someone with some Slovak ancestry, which includes me) and a relatively quick path to citizenship (potentially after 3 years of residence).
Thanks for the Czechia info.
There's some legislative interest in Slovak Living Abroad becoming a citizenship (rather than permanent residency) program. Check out the FB group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1454484788071370
I found the Czech references. https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/2013-186#p31 is the law, which went into effect in 2019. More explanation at https://www.mzv.cz/losangeles/en/consular_information/czech_citizenship_and_vital_records/children_and_grandchildren_of_former.html and https://www.svu2000.org/notices-archive/czech-citizenship-law/